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Selasa, 28 Desember 2010

Adobe Photoshop portable

Adobe Photoshop CS 4


adalah software untuk editing foto yang sudah sangat populer di dunia saat ini. saat ini photoshop banyak di gunakan oleh Fotografer profesional, Fotografer amatir yang ingin menekuni bidang Foto, Design Graphic dan Web Designer. Jadi tidak heran jika software ini sangat mendunia. Software ini sangat bagus untuk sditing foto karena memiliki banyak-banyak fitur edit. Adobe Photoshop CS 4 memliki banyak fitur-fitur baru di bandingkan versi sebelumnya. Fitur-fitur tersebut adalah :
  • Adanya Panel baru untuk konfigurasi ( adjustment panel )
  • Panel buat Masking dimana memudahkan si pengguna untuk meningkatkan kinerja edit.
  • Adanya “Enhanced color-correction technology” akan membuat kita semakin dimanjakan dengan kemudahan dalam proses seleksi.
  • Lebih pandai dalam pengolahan file raw ( File gambar ukuran besar )
  • Integrasi dengan Adobe Photoshop Lightroom.
  • System edit “workflow” yang akan memudahkan dalam proses editing.
  • Untuk printing ukuran besar ( Print very large image ) dapat di lihat dalam mode preview sebelumproses print.

Sangat menarik bukan? Tapi untuk photoshop CS 4 versi biasa anda membutuhkan performa PC yang sangat bertenaga dan memakan harddisk yang besar. Namun sekarang anda tidak perlu khawatir lagi karena telah ada Adobe Photoshop CS 4 Portable yang ukuran filenya sangat kecil dan mudah untuk di gunakan. sangat cocok untuk di simpan di flash disk, dan juga bagi anda yang tidak memiliki komputer, karena anda bisa simpan di flash disk dan di gunakan di komputer orang lain untuk edit foto anda.

Berikut ini ada program Adobe Phoshop Portable beberapa versi yang tidak memerlukan instalasi, bisa di simpan di flashdisk dan dibawa kemana-mana.

Adobe Photoshop Portable Ver.7
[+] Mirror 1 (iix) : Download

Adobe Photoshop Portable CS 3
[+] Mirror 1 (iix) : Download
[+] Mirror 2 (iix) : Download
[+] Mirror 3 (ix) : Download

Adobe Photoshop Portable CS 4
[+] Mirror 1 (iix) : Download
[+] Mirror 2 (iix) : Download
[+] Mirror 4 (iix) : Download
[+] Mirror 5 (iix) : Download
[+] Mirror 6 (ix) : Download

Source: imherry.blogdetik.com

Adobe Photoshop CS5

Kemarin sempet nyari-nyari software photoshop 5 portable, dan akhirnya ketemu. Kebetulan saya harus menyelesaikan desain dan butuh photoshop. Sebagaimana kita ketahui photoshop merupakan software yang sering digunakan untuk desain grafis. Fitur-fitur yang dimilikinya cukup bagus dan mudah digunakan.

Photoshop portable bisa digunakan tanpa perlu instalasi, tinggal di jalankan saja file aplikasinya. Untuk file yang akan di download nanti berukuran sekitar 60 MB-an dan setelah di download dan kemudian di extract maka ukurannya sekitar 300MB –an.


Source: akhdian.com

Tutorial: Christmas Tree with CorelDraw

In this tutorial we use the pucker and roughen effects and some gradients to make a simple pine tree. Throw in some ornaments and you have a Christmas tree.

First start off by selecting the polygon tool. Left click on your canvas to create a polygon with a 20 px radius and 3 sides.

Set the fill color to a light green (I used R=57 G=181 B=74) and set the stroke to none. Next, select your triangle and hold down alt and left click and drag down to create a copy of your triangle. Holding down shift after you start alt-dragging will keep the new shape aligned with the previous one.

Double-click the scale tool and set it to uniform and 120% as shown.

Next open the gradient window and set the type to linear. Set the second color to a dark green (R=0 G=64 B=34) Adjust the angle to 90 degrees and set the gradient slider as shown.

Now we are going to copy this new triangle and alt-drag it down a bit to create a third triangle. Double click the scale tool again and scale the third triangle just as you scaled the second (uniform/120%). Repeat this one more time and you will have four progressively larger triangles as shown:

Click second triangle and select Object/Arrange/Send to back. Repeat this for the third and fourth triangles. Position your triangles until they are fairly evenly spaced as shown:

Now you have a modest, beginner-level tree, but we are going to kick it up a notch. With your selection tool select all 4 triangles. Next select Effects/Distort & Transform/Pucker & Bloat. Set it to -12 so the triangles are puckered a bit. Now we have a slightly swanky, albeit modest tree!

Next, with all four triangles selected, go to Effects/Distort & Transform/Roughen and set the size to 4 and the detail to 50.

Now our modest, beginner-level, slightly swanky tree has been kicked up a notch. You may need to adjust the gradient on the second though fourth triangles. The effect we are going for here is to create a bit of shadow below the each layer of branches:

The shadow gives it depth or “pop” as Mark Kistler would say.

Finally, our tree needs a stump. Select the rectangle tool and draw a stump. You don’t need any dimensions from me… just eye-ball it. Color it brown or open your swatch library and see if you have any gradients/wood. I used Black Walnut. Drag your trunk into place and use Object/Arrange/Send to back to make it look right.

If you want a Christmas tree, just add some ornaments:



Leda and the Swan

In Greek mythology, Leda (Λήδα) was daughter of the Aetolian king Thestius, and wife of the king Tyndareus of Sparta.

Leda was admired by Zeus, who seduced her in the guise of a swan. As a swan, Zeus fell into her arms for protection from a pursuing eagle. Their consummation, on the same night as Leda lay with her husband Tyndareus, resulted in two eggs from which hatched Helen — later known as the beautiful "Helen of Troy" — Clytemnestra, and Castor and Pollux. Which children are the progeny of Tyndareus, the mortal king, and which are of Zeus, and are thus half-immortal, is not consistent among accounts, nor is which child hatched from which egg. The split is almost always half mortal, half divine, although the pairings do not always reflect the children's heritage pairings. Castor and Polydeuces are sometimes both mortal, sometimes both divine. One consistent point is that if only one of them is immortal, it is Polydeuces.

In Homer's Iliad, Helen looks down from the walls of Troy and wonders why she does not see her brothers among the Achaeans. The narrator remarks that they are both already dead and buried back in their homeland of Lacedaemon, thus suggesting that at least in some early traditions, both were mortal.

Another account of the myth states that Nemesis (Νέμεσις) was the mother of Helen, and was also impregnated by Zeus in the guise of a swan. A shepherd found the egg and gave it to Leda, who carefully kept it in a chest until the egg hatched. When the egg hatched, Leda adopted Helen as her daughter. Zeus also commemorated the birth of Helen by creating the constellation Cygnus (Κύκνος), the Swan, in the sky.

Leda and the swan and Leda and the egg were popular subjects in the ancient art. In the postclassical arts, it became a potent source of inspiration

Papercrafts: Aron, Lairon and Aggron !!!


304 / ARON - Pokémon Papercraft
Name: Aron
Type: Steel / Rock
Species: Iron Armor Pokémon
Height: 0.4 m (1′04″)
Weight: 60.0 kg (132.3 lbs.)
Interesting Facts: To make its body, Aron feeds on iron ore that it digs from mountains. Occasionally, hunger may drive it to descend from the mountains to eat bridges and rails, which may produce some same major trouble and cause it to be viewed as a pest. It evolves into Lairon starting at level 32, who evolves into Aggron starting at level 42.

Height: 12.0 cm/4.7 in
Width: 8.7 cm/ 3.4 in
Depth: 14.3 cm/5.6 in
Pages: 4
Pieces: 26
Level: Easy
Designer: Brandon
Photo: Skeleman
NOTES: Build the head and body, and the block for the back separately. Close the Head/body with the flat gray piece on the second page, and close the block with the large white piece that corresponds to the same gray piece (on the last page). Glue on the feet before closing the main body, and be sure they are level.

Download: A4 / Letter


305 / LAIRON - Pokémon Papercraft
Name: Lairon
Type: Steel/Rock
Species: Iron Armor Pokémon
Height: 0.9 m (2′11″)
Weight: 120.0 kg (264.6 lbs.)
Interesting Facts: Lairon feeds on iron contained in rocks and water, and drinks mineral spring water until it is bloated, as it has been said doing so tempers its steel body. Lairon makes its nests near such mineral springs, on mountains where iron ore is buried. Do to its nesting preferences, this may cause it to clash with humans attempting to mine the ore.

Height: 13.7 cm/5.4 in
Width: 20.8 cm/ 8.2 in
Depth: 24.7 cm/9.7 in
Pages: 7
Pieces: 60
Level: Medium
Designer: Brandon
Photo: Skeleman
NOTES: The head, jaw, body, and legs are all separate parts. Build the head first, then the jaw, and then the body. Connect these, then make the legs and attach them. Letters have been added to denote matching parts. Close the model at "I" and then press on the tail.

Download: A4 / Letter


306 / AGGRON - Pokémon Papercraft
Name: Aggron
Type: Steel / Rock
Species: Iron Armor Pokémon
Height: 2.1 m (6′11″)
Weight: 360.0 kg (793.7 lbs.)
Interesting Facts: Aggron are very fierce and aggressive Pokémon. They claim entire mountains as their territory, patrolling it at all times and mercilessly beating up intruders. The gouges in its armor are apparently worn with pride as mementos from battles. If their environment is damaged by a flood or a forest fire, they will restore the area by bringing in topsoil and planting trees. It evolves from Lairon starting at level 42. It is the final form of Aron.

Height: 20.9 cm/ 8.2 in
Width: 20.0 cm/ 7.9 in
Depth: 32.7 cm/ 12.9 in
Pages: 10
Pieces: 87
Level: Medium
Designer: Brandon
Photo: Brandon
NOTES: Build from head down, closing at the tip of the tail. The only tricky part about this one is the head. Like Lairon, it's in multiple parts, but this time 3 instead of 2. Make the jaw first, attach the part with the eyes, and then attach the skull and horns. Then continue on to the neck, and attach the head once the neck is done. Also like Lairon, corresponding rings are lettered. Corresponding pieces are numbered; each piece is to be attached once the piece it attaches to is complete.

Download: A4 / Letter

Jaka Tarub and Nawang Wulan


A Tarub was a handsome young man. He was very popular in the village. Many young girls fell in love with him. However Jaka Tarub thought that they were not beautiful enough to be his wife. That's why he was still single. He wanted to have a very beautiful wife.

As always, Jaka Tarub went to the forest to collect some woods. Suddenly he heard some noise from the waterfall. He was curious. The noise was from the girls taking a bath in the waterfall.

Slowly, Jaka Tarub walked to the area. When he arrived there, he saw seven beautiful girls taking a bath. He was really amazed by their beauty. After they were finished, the girls slowly took their shawls. Amazingly after they wore the shawls, they flew to the sky. They were not humans. They were fairies!

After that Jaka Tarub went home. He was very restless. He was still thinking about those seven beautiful girls.

On the next day, Jaka Tarub then decided to go back to the waterfall. When those fairies were taking a bath, he stole one of their shawls. And that made one fairy could not fly back to the sky. She cried. Jaka Tarub then approached her.

"What's wrong? Why are you crying?"

"I lost my shawl. I cannot go back home. All my sisters have left me. My name is Nawang Wulan. I will give you anything if you can find my shawl."

"I'll help you. But if we can't find it, you can stay at my house. You can be my wife," said Jaka Tarub.

Then Jaka Tarub pretended to look for the shawl. And of course they could not find it. After that they went to Jaka Tarub's home. Later they got married.

They had a baby girl. They had a happy life. They always had enough rice to eat. They did not have to work hard like their neighbors. It was because Nawang Wulan used her magic in cooking.

One day, Jaka Tarub asked her about the magic. Nawang Wulan did not tell him the secret and asked him not to open the cooking pan's lid. She said that if Jaka Tarub opened the lid, they had to work hard to get a lot of rice to cook.

One day, Jaka Tarub was really curious. He then opened the cooking pan's lid. He saw there was only a small portion of rice to cook. When she got home, Nawang Wulan knew that Jaka Tarub had opened the lid. She was angry because she already lost the magic in cooking. Now she had to take a big portion of rice to cook.

Slowly there was not enough rice in the silo. And when Nawang Wulan wanted to take the last portion of rice, she found her shawl. Jaka Tarub hid the shawl in the silo. Nawang Wulan was really happy.

She then said, "I will go home now. Take care of our daughter.

When there is full moon, take her out of the house and I'll come to get her." Nawang Wulan then flew to the sky. Jaka Tarub was really sad. And to keep the promise, Jaka Tarub always went out of the house with his daughter when there was full moon. But Nawang Wulan never came back. **

Source: http://indonesianfolklore.blogspot.com

"Timun Mas ( Golden Cucumber )"


The story began when a lonely old couple met a stupid ugly giant. The couple had no child but they were dying to have one. The giant said he could help them but with a term. So these God’s creatures made an agreement. The giant gave them a magic cucumber seed to grow a child and when the child grew up, they had to give the child up.

The magic seed was planted in the yard. In weeks, a big cucumber came out of it. They took the cucumber to their house and sliced it. There was a baby girl in it. They were very surprise and happy. Finally, they had a child. The baby girl was named Timun Mas (Golden Cucumber). Timun Mas became a nice girl. She loved her stepparents and always obeyed them. She took care of them and never hurt them. Her stepparents loved her more and more.

In short years, Timun Mas became a young girl. The day to give her up to the giant was getting closer. The couple was worried. They could not fulfill their promise to the giant. They loved Timun Mas too much to give her up. Therefore, they were looking for a way to break the promise.

In the afternoon, the giant came to their house. He wanted to take Timun Mas as their agreement. The old couple saw the giant coming. They told Timun Mas to run away.

“Why I have to run away?” Timun Mas asked.

“Because the giant wants to eat you,” answered her stepparents. Timun Mas looked pale. She was afraid to be eaten by the giant. Her stepparents gave her cucumber seed, needles, salt and fermented shrimp paste. “Use these for your protection,” they said. Timun Mas went out from the kitchen door. Her stepparents went to front to meet the giant.

“Where is Timun Mas? I come here to take her,” the giant asked in his loud voice.

“She was not here,” the old couple answered with frightened tremble.

“Where is she?” he asked again.

“She left”

“Are you trying to cut our agreement?” the giant asked angrily.

The old couple got more trembles. “We couldn’t give her. We loved her too much”.

The giant eyes were wider. He was very angry. He chased Timun Mas. Timun Mas saw the giant. She spread the cucumber seed. Suddenly, there were large cucumbers between them. Timun Mas run faster. The blocked cucumbers did not hold the giant. He could smash the cucumbers easily. Then he chased her again. When he was getting closer, Timun Mas spread the needles. Suddenly, there were bamboo trees growing from the land. The giant run the blockade. His body was wounded because of the trees were sharp. However, the giant would not give up. He was still chasing Timun Mas. Timun Mas run again. And when he almost got her, she spread the salt. Suddenly, the land became an ocean. The giant tried to swim. Although he almost drowned, he was still chasing Timun Mas. Then Timun Mas spread her last weapon –the fermented shrimp paste- and suddenly the ocean became a mud ocean. The mud sucked the giant until his head. Then he never showed up again.

Timun Mas then went home. Her stepparents were very happy to see their daughter home.

This story was not very good for children because it teaches you to break your promises, even with an ugly giant. But this story also tells you that parent’s love was very big and makes them to do anything to protect their child even though they were not your birth parents. So read this story just for fun. Ok ?

Senin, 20 Desember 2010

Papercrafts: Eevee and The 7's evolutions



「p_eievui_v3.pdo」 をダウンロー



「bs_normal_ver1.pdo」 をダウンロード



「ef_normal_ver1.pdo」 をダウンロード



「gr_normal_ver3.pdo」 をダウンロード



「sd_normal_ver1.pdo」 をダウンロード




「sw_normal_ver1.pdo」 をダウンロード



「br_normal_ver1.pdo」 をダウンロード



「lf_normal_ver1.pdo」 をダウンロード

Machu Picchu - The Lost City of Inca


Machu Picchu (juga disebut "Kota yang hilang dari kerajaan Inca") merupakan salah satu kota kuno warisan dunia yang telah ditinggalkan penduduknya. Saat ini, kota ini hanya berupa reruntuhan batu yang pada masa lalu merupakan bangunan-bangunan megah pusat peradaban suku Inca. Meski hanya tinggal reruntuhan saja, kota ini masih memiliki daya tarik tersendiri. Selain penataan kota yang teratur, misteri pembangunan kota menjadi magnet bagi wisatawan dan kalangan akademisi.


Kota ini merupakan salah satu kota yang dibangun sekitar tahun 1400-an pada masa kerajaan Inca yang telah lama berselang. Lokasinya berada di atas lembah Urubamba di puncak Gunung Andes, Peru. Berada sekitar 70 km barat laut Cusco, dengan ketinggian sekitar 2.350 m di atas permukaan laut.
Kata "Machu Picchu" berasal dari bahasa Quechua (Machu Pikchu), yang memiliki arti "Gunung Tua". Nama itu diambil karena lokasi kota yang berada di puncak pegunungan tinggi dan suci.

Kota Machu Picchu mulai dibangun sekitar tahun 1450 Masehi pada masa Kerajaan Inca masih berdiri. Kota ini tak dapat dilihat dari kaki bukit sehingga akan aman dari musuh. Di sekitarnya terdapat terasiring tanah pertanian dengan sistem irigasi menggunakan mata air alami di puncak gunung. Kota ini dibangun dengan gaya arsitektur Inca kuno dengan batu tembok berpelitur. Bangunan utama yang ada di dalamnya antara lain Intihuatana, Kuil Matahari, dan Ruangan Tiga Jendela. Tempat-tempat ini disebut sebagai Distrik Sakral dari Machu Picchu.
Semua bangunan diukir dari granit abu-abu yang berasal dari puncak gunung. Batuan seberat + 50 ton dipahat dengan cermat dan digabungkan membentuk bangunan tanpa adanya bahan perekat. Posisinya sangat rapat sehingga tak ada lubang sekecilpun diantara bebatuan itu.

Salah satu fungsi utama dari pembangunan Kota Machu Picchu adalah sebagai observatorium astronomi. Intihuatana (dalam bahasaa Inggris disebut "hitching post of the sun") merupakan tempat yang tepat untuk perhitungan waktu siang dan malam serta periode cuaca. Pada tanggal 21 Maret dan 21 September tengah hari, matahari tepat berada di atas pilar-pilar Intihuatana (juga disebut Sukhanka Saywa atau batu) sehingga tak ada bayangan pilar sama sekali. Pada saat itulah, suku Inca mengadakan sebuah upacara keagamaan di Intihuatana yang disebut bertujuan untuk menahan pergerakan matahari agar tidak menuju ke utara.
Selain saat itu, ada juga upacara yang dilakukan saat titik balik musim panas di belahan bumi bagian selatan, yakni pada tanggal 21 Desember. Pada tanggal itu, matahari terbenam tepat di balik Pumasillo (cakar Puma) yang mereka anggap sebagai tempat tersuci di Gunung Vilcabamba.

Ada beberapa pendapat mengenai kegiatan sosial dan keagamaan suku Inca di Kota Machu Picchu. Salah satu pendapat tersbut muncul setalah ditemukannya tulang seorang laki-laki dan 10 wanita dalam satu tempat. Dari penemuan tersebut, muncul pendapat bahwa tempat tersebut yang berada di Kota Machu Picchu digunakan sebagai tempat bagi pendeta wanita. Ada juga yang berpendapat bahwa Kota Machu Picchu digunakan sebagai rumah pengantin wanita dari kalangan bangsawan suku Inca. Namun, penelitian selanjutnya menemukan bahwa tulang laki-laki yang ada berjumlah sama dengan tulang wanita. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa Kota Machu Picchu bukanlah tempat khusus bagi wanita seperti yang disebut di dalam pendapat pertama.

Ketika bangsa Spanyol berhasil menaklukan Kerajaan Inca pada sekitar 1550 Masehi, penduduk Kota Machu Picchu meninggalkan tempat tinggalnya sehingga Kota Machu Picchu menjadi sebuah kota mati tanpa penghuni. Pasukan Spanyol sendiri tidak pernah menemukan keberadaan Machu Picchu sehingga keberadaannya tidak pernah diketahui bangsa Eropa. Namun, kota ini masih dikenal di kalangan suku Inca setempat.
Pada tanggal 24 Juli 1911, seorang arkeolog dari Universitas Yale, Hiram Bingham III, berhasil sampai ke lokasi reruntuhan Kota Machu Picchu (saat itu tertutup berbagai pepohonan) saat berpetualang mendaki Gunung ANdes dan memperkenalkannya pada dunia luar (bangsa Eropa). Sejak saat itu, reruntuhan Kota Machu Picchu menjadi objek wisata yang menarik bagi para turis asing, terutama dari kalangan akademisi untuk melakukan berbagai penelitian.

Begitu banyaknya wisatawan yang berkunjung ke lokasi reruntuhan Kota Machu Picchu menyebabkan kerusakan yang parah pada kondisi situs tersebut. Beberapa dianta kerusakan itu adalah hilangnya sejumlah artefak di Kota Machu Picchu. Pada September 2007, pemerintah Peru melakukan berbagai usaha dengan hasil paling cemerlang adalah berupa kesepakatan dengan Universitas Yale untuk mengembalikan artefak-artefak yang pernah dibambil oleh Bingham dari Kota Machu Picchu pada awal abad ke-20.



The Importance of Rainforests


Rainforests are one of the most complicated environments on Earth. They are recognized worldwide as containing the richest source of plants and animals and are believed to contain nearly three-quarters of all the varieties of life on Earth. This is remarkable because rainforests cover only about six percent of the Earth's land surface.

Rainforest are the oldest major ecosystem, having survived climate changes for more than one million years. They provide habitats for more species of plants, animals, insects and birds than any other environment found on our planet. Scientists estimate that between 60 and 90 percent of all species of life are to be found in rain forests. Unfortunately, the widespread destruction of many of the world's rainforests has caused a significant decline in the number of plant and animal species on Earth.

Rainforests influence both our local and global climates. For example, between 50 and 80 percent of the moisture in the air above rainforests comes from the rainforest's trees. If large areas of these lush rainforests are cleared, the average rainfall in the area will drop. Eventually, the area's climate will get hotter and drier. This process could convert rainforests into a sparse grassland or desert.

Rainforests are also able to absorb over 90 percent of the rainfall in their leaves and mosses. By doing this, they are able to slow down water run-off by gradually releasing the water over time into streams and rivers. This helps to control soil erosion and flooding.


Rainforests are vital to the Earth in helping to recycle carbon and oxygen. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the gas put into the air globally by humans, mainly by the burning of fossil fuels (for example in cars and factories). Rainforests are able to remove carbon dioxide from the air and return oxygen in its place. This is why our global rainforests are often called the Earth's ‘lungs'.

Rainforests are major producers of the Earth's oxygen. In fact, scientists believe that nearly 50 percent of the Earth's oxygen is produced by rainforest in the Amazon region alone.

Nearly 40 percent of the world's carbon is contained in the trees of the rainforests. As rainforests are cut down and burned, carbon dioxide is released into the Earth's atmosphere. Eventually, as this gas builds up the atmosphere, leading to what scientists call the enhanced greenhouse effect.


To sum up, the role of the rainforest is essential for human life. It creates equilibrium in our environment and its resources are significant for human beings survival.

Taken from SOSE: Studies of Society and Environment, 2000

Access to Clean Water: A Problem for Indonesia


Access to clean water is one of Indonesia's biggest problem. According to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Report 2007, published by the National Development Planning Board, piped water is accessible to 30.8 percent of households in the country's cities and 9 percent in its villages. Such figures show the limitations of the municipality's water service provider, PDAM.

Lack of investment in clean water is one reason PDAM gives for its limited outreach. Based on a government statement, to meet the MDGs target by 2015, Indonesia needs Rp43 trillion (US$4.6 billion) in clean water funding. The government currently provides Rp500 billion.

In order to close the funding gap, the government expects private investment in drinking water infrastructure.

The need for clean water funding is something that cannot be covered by private investment. In Indonesia, most PDAM utilities have small scales of economy and are therefore unattractive to investors.

There is no evidence to suggest private investors will improve the efficiency and effectiveness of water services, whereas the government has a duty to do so.

Increasing public funding for clean water infrastructure is the most rational approach for Indonesia. This effort should begin with an analysis of the needs of locals. This should be done through a democratic and participatory process.

There are resources and mechanisms the government could employ to increase clean water funding, such as state and local budgets, grants, government bonds and community-public partnership.

In order to use a grant system, the government should improve its proposal management and clearly focus on real needs in order to widen clean water services.


PDAM could use existing funds more efficiently. if it could reduce leakages from 40 per cent to 20 percent, it would have more disposable funds to invest in infrastructure. PDAM should use cost recovery principles, as long as costs are not passed on to consumers. Cost recovery principles should also be supported by a proper subsidy mechanism.

Bond investing is a traditional lending instrument for public services. The mechanism needs conditions, such as strong capital structure at local level.

A few of mechanisms in place now do help the poor access clean water at affordable prices. The most important thing is to make sure the mechanisms run properly and that the needs of people at the local level are met through appropriate funding.


Taken from The Jakarta Post, April 5, 2008

Kamis, 16 Desember 2010

10 Dinosaurus Bertanduk Paling Spektakuler

1. Kosmoceratops
Salah satu Dinosaurus yang terakhir ditemukan fosilnya ini kami tempatkan pada urutan pertama. Karena Kosmoceratops ini memiliki sedikitnya 13 tanduk di kepalanya.!!(15 jika menghitung tanduk pada rahangnya.). Ilmuwan menamakannya "Dinosaurus paling cantik" karena hiasannya yang sangat banyak,. Tanduk - tanduk yang ada di bagian depan wajahnya adalah tanduk yang tidak terlihat untuk menyerang, tapi lebih digunakan untuk menakuti predator dan saingannya. Dinosaurus ini diperkirakan hidup di Amerika Utara, Fosilnya ditemukan di Utah, negara bagian di Amerika barat.

2. Coahuilaceratops
Coahuilaceratops magnacerna sangat mirip dengan Pentaceratops, jenis Dinosaurus paling terkenal yang telah disebutkan di pendahuluan di atas. Fosil dinosaurus ini ditemukan di sebelah utara Meksiko, Coahuila. Dia memiliki sebuah tanduk di atas hidungnya, dan sepasang tanduk di bagian atas yang merupakan tanduk terbesar diantara dinosaurus bertanduk lainnya. Panjangnya kira - kira 1.5 meter. Nama sebutannya (magnacuerna horns berarti tanduk besar). Walaupun ada yang memperkirakan beratnya hingga 12 tons (2 kali berat T-rex), namun sebenarnya beratnya hanya sekitar 5 ton, seukuran gajah dengan panjang 7 meter. Hal ini dijelaskan pada tahun 2010 ini, yang merupakan salah satu tambahan keterangan tentang ceratopsian ini.

3. Rubeosaurus
Rubeosaurus dulunya dimasukan pada spesies Styracosaurus. Ukuran tanduk pada rumbainya lebih kecil dari Styracosaurus, tetapi tanduk di hidungnya sangat besar, sehingga sangat pantas disebut sebagai senjata yang sangat berbahaya. Tidak seperti tanduk pada Badak, yang secara keseluruhan terbuat dari keratin (protein penyusun rambut dan kuku), Rubeosaurus, dan kebanyakan ceratopsians, tersusun atas sel tulang penuh, yang dilapisi oleh keratin. Keratin biasanya tidak bisa menjadi fosil, sehingga diperkirakan tanduk ceratopsians ini lebih panjang dan tajam pada saat dia masih hidup dari pada fosil nya yang telah ditemukan. Sayangnya, tanpa lapisan keratin yang tersisa, tidak mungkin ukuran sebenarnya dapat diperkirakan. Bagian tanduk unik dari Rubeosaurus ini adalah tanduk yang ada di bagian atas rumbainya. Terdapat sepasang tanduk yang saling bertemu, sehingga membentuk segitiga.

4. Diabloceratops
Diabloceratops berarti "wajah setan bertanduk". Fosilnya ditemukan di Utah. Dinosaurus ini memiliki tanduk pada hidung yang kecil., tetapi tanduk pada keningnya sangat besar, dan tanduk yang ada di rumbainya jauh lebih besar lagi.
Keempat tandunya itu, dengan dua buah tanduk yang ada di keningnya, membuat penampilannya sangat aneh, sangat berbeda dengan dinosaurus lain yang pernah ditemukan. Diabloceratops diperkirakan sebagai dinosaurus bertanduk yang primitif, karena memiliki beberapa persamaan anatomi dengan protoceratosids. Rahangnya sangat padat dan kuat, serta tanduk dan tubuhnya sangat kokoh, sehingga diperkirakan dinosaurus ini menggunakannya untuk melawan predator yang mengancam mereka.

5. Einiosaurus
Fosil Einiosaurus ditemukan pada tahun 1985, dan diberi nama pada tahun 1995. Namanya berarti "Kadal bison". Walaupun sangat dekat dengan Styracisaurus, dia memiliki tampilan yang berbeda. Dia hanya memiliki dua tanduk yang panjang dan lurus di rumbai kepalanya , dan sebuah tanduk aneh, "pesek", dan melengkung ke depan di atas hidungnya, sehingga terlihat seperti pembuka botol. Walaupun tanduk di bagian hidungnya tidak terlihat sebagai senjata yang efektif, tapi tanduk lurus yang ada di rumbainya mungkin digunakan untuk bertahan dari berbagai karnifora, salah satunya mencegah serangan pada punggungnya. Seperti Pachyrhinosaurus, Einiosaurus diketahu hidup di habitat yang luas. Fosil dinosaurus ini ditemukan di daerah Montana.

6. Styracosaurus
Walaupun dinosaurus ini salah satu dinosaurus klasik dan telah diketahui sejak tahun 1913, Styracosaurus telah menjadikan dirinya sebagai salah satu ceratposians yang spektakuler. Dia memiliki sebua tandukyang panjang dan berbahaya di bagian moncongnya, dan enam tanduk lainnya di bagian rumbainya (sehingga ia diberinama yang artinya reptile berduri). Dinosaurus ini terlihat sangat menakutkan, sehingga dimungkinkan banyak predator yang tidak berani untuk secara langsung berhadapan dengan dinosaurus ini. Dinosaurus ini panjangnya sekitar 5.5 meter dengan berat sekitar 3 ton. Fosilnya ditemukan di Kanada.

7. Pentaceratops
Pentaceratops sering dikatakan memiliki tulang tengkorak terbesar dari semua hewan darat ( walaupun meungkin Torosaurus dan Eotriceratops mampu menyainginya). Namanya berarti "Muka bertanduk lima". Sebenarnya mungkin ada salah perhitungan dan perkiraan, karena kedua tanduk yang ada, sebenarnya merupakan tulang epujugal (seperti duri yang timbul dari tulang dekat matanya) yang banyak dimiliki ceratopsians, tapi ukurannya sangat besar pada Pentaceratops ini. Rumbainya memiliki dua lubang atau "fenestrae" yang dilapisi oleh kulit ketika masih hidup.
Para ahli Paleontology yakn bahwa kulit ini berwarna cerah dan digunakan untuk menakuti predator dan menantang saingan dalam spesies yang sama. Bahkan ada yang berspelulasi bahwa mereka mampu mengganti warna dan corak dari kulit ini seperti bunglon. Dinosaurus ini ditemukan di Meksiko, dengan panjang 8 meter dan berat 5.5 ton.!

8. Medusaceratops
Ceratopsian ini memiliki bentuk tanduk melengkung yang aneh di bagian rumbainya. Tanduk ini panjangnya sekitar 7 meter. Dinosaurus ini sebelumnya dinamakan Albertaceratops, namun pada tahun 2010 namanya telah diganti dengan nama di atas. Medusaceratops berarti "wajah medusa bertanduk", karena tanduknya yang bengkok mirip dengan Medusa, tokoh wanita berambut ular dari mitologi Yunani kuno. Dinosaurus ini ditemukan di Montana Amerika barat, dan diperkirakan hidup sekitar 77 juta tahun yang lalu.

9. Pachyrinosaurus
Namanya berarti "reptile berhidung tebal", karena selain memiliki tanduk yang dimiliki oleh kabanyakan ceratopsians, makhluk ini memiliki tulang aneh yang tumbuh di bagian depan, yang terlihat seperti telah terpotong karena sebuah perkelahian.:D. Mereka juga memiliki tanduk dan duri di bagian rumbainya dan memiliki sebuah tanduk aneh yang berada di belakang matanya. Ukuran dan bentuk dari ornamen - ornamen itu berbeda - beda pada setiap individu, dan mungkin membantu mereka untuk mengenal satu sama lain .Banyak fosil yang ditemukan teridiri dari berpasang - pasang individu dengan satu individu muda dan dewasa. Ini menunjukan bahwa dinosaurus ini hidup berkelompok. Hewan ini berukuran cukup besar, panjangnya mencapai 8 meter dan beratnya sekitar 4 ton!

10. Eotriceratops
Eotriceratops ini dinamakan pada tahun 2007, yang berarti "Triceratops awal", karena mirip dengan Triceratops tapi hidup jutaan tahun sebelumnya. Sejan Triceratops terkenal, tampilan Eotriceratops ( rumbai yang khas, dua buah tanduk di bagian mata dan sebuah tanduk di bagian hidung) menjadi sangat familiar. Tapi ada satu hal yang membuat dinosaurus ini spesial, yaitu ukurannya!! Dia adalah ceratopsian terbesar yang pernah ada, berdasarkan penelitian para ahli paleontology, dilihat dari ukuran tulang tengkoraknya yang sepanjang 3 meter dan sama beratnya dengan sebuah mobil, hewan ini dimungkinkan memiliki panjang sekitar 9 - 10 meter dan beratnya melebihi Tyranosaurus rex. Dinosaurus ini hidup di Kanada 68 tahun yang lalu.

sumber: yudi-setiadi.com