"ummmh..." Emoticon

Senin, 29 November 2010

Papercraft: C&C3: GDI Juggernaut


GDI's walking artillery platform can support tank operations with its long rang cannons, serve as a siege wepon when stationed outside and enemy base, and bombard targets with the aid of Sniper Teams


Desert camo:
PDO: box.net : mediafire
PDF: box.net : mediafire

Snow camo:
PDO: mediafire
PDF: mediafire

Pokemon Best Wishes! (from AnimeUltima.tv)

watch Pokemon Best Wishes! english subbed-dubbed free

Pokemon Best Wishes!'s Synopsis

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After departing from Takeshi and Hikari, Satoshi decides to take his adventure into the land of Isshu. Follow the adventures he has with his faithful partner, Pikachu, and his new travel companions, Iris and Dent, as he explores this brand new region!

AnimeUltima is the place to watch Pokemon Best Wishes! online episodes free. We also provide Pokemon Best Wishes! direct download and torrent links! All Pokemon Best Wishes! episodes are updated every hour by our search engine. To begin watching Pokemon Best Wishes!, choose an episode below. Have fun watching!

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Papercrafts: Duskull

355 / DUSKULL - Pokémon Papercraft
Type: Ghost
Species: Requiem Pokémon
Height: 0.8 m (2′07″)
Weight: 15 kg (33.1 lbs.)
Interesting Facts: Duskull is styled after a traditional personification of Death, the Grim Reaper. It resembles a small hooded masked form in a black robe with a crossbones drawing on its back. In its "shiny" alternate coloring, its robe is curiously bright red. Its mask resembles the front of a skull. It also seems to have a single eye that floats between the eye sockets in its mask. It evolves into Dusclops starting at level 37, who evolves into Dusknoir when traded holding a Reaper Cloth.

Height: 15 cm/5.9 in
Width: 17.1 cm/ 6.7 in
Depth: 18.3 cm/7.2 in
No. of Pages: 5
No. of Pieces: 32
Level: Medium
Designer: PMF
Builder: Paperbuff
NOTES: Start with the skull and the eyes then build around it, working your way to the bottom of the model. Build the arms starting from the shoulder down to the hands, then attach to body. Make sure to score and fold the bottom pieces. Close by using the tab-less bottom piece. Glue it fold by fold.

Download: A4 / Letter

Sabtu, 27 November 2010

Pokemon Fanart





















Yu-Gi ???

anything else »

anything else »




I pity Yusei. Sad



Adolf Hitler's Biography

Adolf Hitler - Biography

Founder of Nazism, dictator of Germany 1933-1945, planned and started World War 2

Adolf Hitler's Historic Background
To understand Adolf Hitler and his rise to power it's important to know the historic background.

World War 1 was primarily the result of the German militarism. In many ways it was the most militarized nation and until the end of that war it was dominated by its military. When it was defeated in 1918, the German military leadership, which stopped the war before the military collapsed, convinced the German people that they were betrayed, "Stabbed in the back by civilians". It was an irrational excuse, given the military's domination, but it became a popular myth. The defeat in World War 1 was therefore a traumatic shock to most Germans, especially to the German soldiers, and almost no one in Western Europe understood it then.

This resulted in a very weak post-war democratic regime in Germany. In addition to that, Germany was divided between a "western" and "eastern" political and social orientations. Today, when Germany is a modern liberal "western" country it's hard to figure it out, but before World War 2, Germany was mostly dominated by the "eastern" orientation that rejected western liberalism and democracy, and had a militarist aggressive orientation facing East, and the "western" orientation which represented peaceful liberalism was a minority. However, this minority orientation governed Germany's weak post-WWI democracy.

In Germany and in its sister ethnic-German Austria there was strong anti-semitism that since the 19th century developed to a strong political force that blamed jews for all problems and trouble. This internal hate was intensified after the defeat of World War 1. This was the background for Adolf Hitler's rise to total power as the dictator of Germany, for his aggressive quest for world domination, and the horrible crimes against humanity committed in his command.

Adolf Hitler's early years

Adolf Hitler was born in 1889 in a small Austrian village close to the German border, the son of a border customs clerk and a housemaid. As a teenager, he began to develop an artistic talent. At age 16 he quit high-school. At age 17 he applied for the Vienna academy of fine arts, but was rejected. When he was 14 his father died, and when he was 18 his loving mother had cancer. She was treated by a Jewish Doctor, but despite costly and painful treatment she died. He was then 18, and alone in the world.

He returned to Vienna, and quickly became penniless. He wandered in Vienna, slept in bars and in shelters for the homeless. His attempts to make a living as a painter were futile. He had two Jewish friends there, but Vienna was then an active center of strong anti-semitism, and Hitler also read "The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion", a FAKE document that was written by the pre-WWI Russian Royal secret police in a cynical attempt to divert public blame of Russia's trouble from the monarchy to the jews. The "protocols" describe an imaginary conspiracy of rich jews to dominate the world by dominating countries like puppets and turning them against each other. Hitler, already a typical anti-semitic, believed every word.

In his poor six years in Vienna, Adolf Hitler developed his extreme hate of jews, was exposed to the idea of anti-Jewish legislation, discovered his remarkable talent of speech, that used grand romantic metaphors from German culture and from his imaginative artistic soul, and developed his view of how a totalitarian state should be managed, following the example of Vienna's very successful Mayor, who was also an anti-semitic.

At age 24, still penniless, Adolf Hitler left Vienna and crossed the border to Germany in order to avoid military service in the Austrian army. He was arrested and brought back to Austria, but was then found "Unfit, too weak, unable to bear arms". Given his later military service and bravery in combat, it's obvious that he successfully played a false figure in order to escape a peacetime military service he wanted to avoid.

A soldier in World War 1

When the fragile European balance of power exploded a year later into World War 1, Hitler's German patriotism was ignited, and he decided to join the military. Because of his previous incident with the Austrian military, he returned to Germany, the ally sister country, and volunteered to the German army.

After a short training, his unit was sent to the bloody static battlefield in the trenches of the western front, and fought mainly against British forces. He fought bravely, narrowly escaped death several times, and was decorated twice with the Iron Cross medal, but not promoted. He was wounded twice in combat. In his 2nd injury he was temporarily blinded. During his recovery from his 2nd injury, still blind, in a military hospital, he was surprised and shocked with the news that the war ended with a German defeat.

It's important to note that during his years in the military, Hitler received political indoctrination that completed his political education, and made him a strong supporter of the "eastern" militarist orientation. His cruel war experience, he later said, also developed in him an uncompromising iron will.

Post-war Germany was in chaos. Communism rose, and Communist movements rioted in the cities, some of them led by jews. Eventually Germany turned from a militarist monarchy to a democracy, with an executive prime minister and a president that kept powerful authorities, the replacement of the king. The socialists gained control of the government. The situation in the streets got worse. The new government finally signed the peace treaty that included loss of territory, a severe economical burden of compensations, and severe limitations on the German military's size and equipment, which were supposed to reduce its threat. It was perceived by most Germans as a great national humiliation.

Hitler, finally recovered from his injury, and still officially a soldier, joined a para-military militia of war veterans who clashed with the communists in the streets of German cities. He was then given the task of closely monitoring a tiny right-wing political group called "German Worker's Party".

Hitler enters politics

Hitler quickly realized that their ideas match his, and that they can be his vehicle for political power, that he decided that he wants as a result of the affair of the war's defeat and the humiliating peace treaty. In April of 1920, at age 31, still with no profession, he resigned from the military to enter career politics as the new leader of this tiny political group that he initially spied on. It had a militarist "eastern" oriented, anti-semitic, nationalist foreign policy, with a domestic policy of state-controlled "Socialism". It was basically the policy of the previous totalitarian militarist regime, with a big dose of added anti-semitism, and like the communists, it addressed the wide public of workers and ex-soldiers.

In 1923 the German economy collapsed into wild hyper-inflation. The peace treaty compensation was blamed for it, but the real reason was that Germany's long time costly militarism that was previously paid for by the fruits of victories, had no victory now to pay its huge national debt, and the government ignored good economical advice that came from top foreign experts. The inflation was such that a visiting US Congressman exchanged $7 for 4,000,000,000 DM, the German currency. Most Germans lost everything they had. They blamed the peace treaty compensations and "Jewish traders".

The political crisis that followed resulted in an emergency wide coalition, but also in new violent Communist riots. Eager for power, Hitler thought it's the right time for a revolution of his own. His supporters captured the members of the local government of the state of Bavaria, and he appointed himself the new political master of Bavaria. He marched 3000 of his supporters in the city, but then the police fired at them, and the "revolution" failed.

Hitler received a sentence of 5 years in prison, but thanks to the dominance of the "eastern" politicians, which included himself, his imprisonment was like a VIP hotel stay. Instead of a prison cell and prisoner's uniform, he was busy receiving guest politicians and fans six hours a day, wearing traditional Bavarian clothes, and in his 35th birthday, the flowers candies and presents he received filled several rooms.

Instead of 5 years, his imprisonment lasted just 9 months. During those months three things happened:

  1. Finally, following top international experts' advice, the government successfully stabilized the economy and started a period of several years of steady economical growth.

  2. The "western" German orientation lost its remaining popular support, and the German people began to steadily drift back to totalitarianism and militarism. The author D.H. Lawrence, who visited Germany in 1921 and again in 1924 noticed this dramatic drift in public orientation. He wrote "The Germans are disconnecting from the West and drift to the deserts of the East. Germany no longer seeks to join Western Europe and peacefulness. It's over. Germany is turning back to the destructive magic of the East that produced Atila. There is a disturbing sense of danger. There is no more hope for peace and prosperity. Instead there is a return to Tartar savagery and further from Christian European civilization. It happens, and it's deeper than any actual event." - an amazingly sensitive and breathtaking early observation, a precise warning 15 years! before the war began.

  3. Hitler formed his final ideological and practical political agenda. He detailed it in his book Mein Kampf (my struggle).
    The main points of Hitler's mad "ideology" were that :
    • International relations are an endless and merciless inter-racial struggle for domination.
    • His "racial" division of mankind is a hierarchy, with the "Aryan race" (the Germans) as the master race at the top, followed by the "Nordic" peoples of northern Europe, followed by other nations and races, with the Slav peoples of Eastern Europe at the bottom, and the jews totally outside the hierarchy as a demonic arch-enemy of the Germans.
    • As the master race, the Germans are entitled to, and must, expand their territory by merciless force, and enslave "Lower races".
    • Particularly, the Germans should occupy the vast lands of Eastern Europe, enslave its peoples, exploit its endless natural and agricultural resources, and fill it with Germans.
    • To be as strong as possible, the Germans must strictly keep their "Racial purity", and be led by a Fuhrer (leader) of total authority - Adolf Hitler.
    • The jews, the "Arch enemy", should be eliminated.
    • Hitler also believed that Communism, and particularly the Soviet Union, are in Jewish control. This doubled his motivation to attack Russia.
    • Finally, with Eastern Europe's resources in their hands and with the jews out of the way, The 3rd Reich (Hitler referred to Nazi Germany as the 3rd German Empire in history) will be able to defeat all other nations and dominate the entire world "For at least a thousand years".

Hitler's meteoric political rise

Between 1924 and 1929, Hitler's party grew slowly, but then, a combination of a global economic crisis, that sharply increased unemployment to a peak of 43% and revived the worst fears of the previous crisis, that strengthened the communists, who returned to street violence, this combination brought fear, and Hitler rose meteorically over this wave of fear, promising Germans a return to the old ways and a bright future. His talent as a demagogue served him well in those years.

The German political system was in increasing chaos, with political street violence, frequent elections, very high unemployment, and general worry. Hitler openly declared that voting for him is a vote to end democracy. In May 1932 his electorate doubled to 37% .

His political opponents constantly misjudged him until it was too late, and so in January 30, 1933, at age 44, after two months of political negotiations, Adolf Hitler became the prime minister of Germany. It was supposed to be a coalition government, only 3 of the 12 cabinet members were Nazis, but Hitler now had the full authority of a prime minister, including emergency authorities, and got control of the police. In addition, he controlled his party's 500,000 strong "Brown shirts" militia that used brutal violence in city streets.

From prime minister to dictator

Hitler used his new authority and acted swiftly. His friend Goebels once said "Once we get to power, we will never give it back unless we're taken out of our offices as dead corpses". 12 years later he and Hitler indeed finished their careers as dead corpses, but at this moment, in 1933, they were just seizing power.

At that night the Nazis celebrated their victory by marching outside the government offices. The next morning they took control of the police. Not just ministerial control. They replaced many senior police officers with Nazis. They expanded the secret police with Nazi officers. Four days later Hitler used his emergency authority to issue an order that allowed the government to close newspapers and ban public gatherings. A new "Auxillary police" of 50,000 Nazis was formed. Their order was to dismantle any non-Nazi organization that might express resistance. Hermann Goering clearly instructed them "Legal and beaurocratic aspects will not limit the means I'll use...My job is not justice. My job is to eliminate and destroy, that's all...If you use your pistols in following my orders, you're protected...If someone calls it murder, fine, I'm a murderer". In February 28th, after a month in power, Hitler issued two more emergency orders that "temporarily" allowed the Nazi-controlled police to bypass the legal system, which practically means that Hitler "legally" abolished ALL human rights (the order specified a long list of rights which were "canceled"), and gained total power. This order remained valid until the end of World War 2.

A month later, while surrounded by armed Nazi militia, the German Reichstag (Congress) voted to pass its legislative authority to Hitler. This allowed him to change the constitution, and passed the legislative authority of the president to Hitler. It was a move that cancelled legal government and gave Adolf Hitler total power. He was now "Der Fuhrer", The Leader. The opposition leaders were murdered, or fled. In June all other parties and their organizations were dismantled, and finally in July Hitler's party was declared the only legal party.

Backed by anti-democratic popular support, it took Hitler five months from the day he was appointed prime minister to complete the official establishment of a totalitarian police state in formerly democratic Germany. The actual change was much faster, because right from the beginning the Nazis practically ruled by using brutal force that murdered or permanently imprisoned anyone who dared to express disagreement, as Goering instructed his pseudo-legal Nazi policemen.

Every German quickly realized that anyone the Nazis dislike disappears, quickly and permanently. And so began an age of total terror, that continued until the end of World War 2. Hitler commended Hermann Goering for his brutality.

Adolf Hitler - Dictator of Germany

In order to ensure his total personal control, Hitler designed a regime in which each power center had a rival parallel, or even two. Internal security for example, was the realm of not only the regular police, but also of the S.A militia, the S.S (the Nazi party's other private force that sworn personal loyalty to Hitler), the GESTAPO (security police). Hitler encouraged the rivalries under him. Each senior Nazi spied after his peers. They all informed Hitler. In addition to the regular army, a small "private" army, the "Waffen SS" was formed, and so on. He started working mainly at nights, no longer wrote anything by himself, and made all major decisions in private meetings, or alone. All his orders were verbal, never written.

Hitler didn't have an economical policy, but he did have a national policy - he wanted Germany to fully re-arm itself as soon as possible. That, and the natural strength of the German economy, reduced unemployment in 3 years to none, and later even created shortage of workers. He said "We don't have to nationalize the banks and factories. Instead we nationalized the people".

While he allowed the Nazi party to brutally dominate all other aspects of life, he kept it away from the industry and the military, because for his intended war he wanted them both to reach peak performance as soon as possible.

By the mid 1930s Adolf Hitler was a brutal, but successful and popular dictator. Everyone was employed again, and national dignity was restored. Employment was full partly because a huge chunk of the national budget was spent on very massive military production, the Nazi police state regime created a huge number of new jobs in the multiple police and party organizations, and also a very large number of former workers, both jews and political enemies, were now prisoners in large "Concentration camps".

Pre-war expansion

Now Hitler was ready to begin a dramatic series of daring expansion moves. Each of those moves that succeeded without starting a war further enhanced Hitler image as a political-strategic genius, and increased his daring self-confidence. The main reasons for those successes were that the deeply pacifist war-traumatized Great Britain and France, which always preferred appeasement over confrontation, and Hitler, who made no mistakes until the end of 1938, repeatedly used two excuses for his expansion:
  1. "This is/was a German territory" or "There is a German population there that should be united with Germany"
  2. "This is my last demand, so why don't you accept it. You will not start a war for that".
There was only one problem with the appeasement policy which repeatedly accepted Hitler's moves. Hitler was not going to stop, and he could not be appeased. It was clear to those who read his book and heard his dramatic speeches, but so many in Europe preferred to ignore it and treat him as if he was an ordinary political leader. It was a fatal mistake. Furthermore, the active pacifism in Britain and France was so strong that the British government pressed France to significantly reduce the size of the French army, the British labor party opposed re-armament right until the war started, and in France there was a campaign to reduce the duration of military service by half. The few warning voices, like that of Winston Churchill, were ignored.

Hitler's pre-war expansion steps were:

  • In January 1935 he sent the German military to the neutral Saar region.
  • In March 1936 he sent the German military to the demilitarized Rhine region.
  • In March 1938 he annexed Austria
  • In October 1938 he annexed the western part of Czechoslovakia.
  • In March 1939 he annexed the rest of Czechoslovakia.
At that point Hitler's popularity in Germany significantly decreased. The German public which applauded the unification with the ethnic German population of Austria, was now really worried of war. But as a total dictator Hitler was not dependent on public support, so its loss did not slow him at all.

He now intended to dismantle and swallow Poland too, as he did to Czechoslovakia, using the threat of his military power to achieve conquest without fighting. But he didn't realize that his actions finally alarmed Great Britain, which realized that war is inevitable and decided not to accept Hitler's next move.

Hitler thought that his actions will not start a war with Great Britain. He intended to head East, through Poland, and finally be in position to execute the next step of his global plan, to attack the Soviet Union. He intended to confront the British Empire and the rest of the world only after occupying Russia and after his plan to build a huge oceanic German Navy (plan Z) will be complete, circa 1944.

So in March 1939, right after the annexation of Czechoslovakia, he cancelled the German-Polish non-aggression pact. Just 3 days later the British government guaranteed Polish independence.

Since he was not going to stop, and since Great Britain and France began to negotiate a military pact with the Soviet Union, Hitler made a very surprising move. He signed a non-aggression pact with his near future prey, the Soviet Union, in which the two dictatorships also secretly agreed that they will both invade Poland and divide it between them.

World War 2

In August 22nd, 1939, based on his experience so far, the confident Hitler told his Generals that Great Britain and France will not declare war in response to an invasion of Poland. This was his first big mistake. He didn't realize that when forced to confront someone like himself, the pacifist West finally had no options left but to fight.

A few days later, in September 1st, 1939, the Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe, the German army and Air Force, attacked Poland in a way that shocked the world with its speed and efficiency. This was Blitzkrieg ("Lightning war"), a new powerful tactic that coordinated and concentrated the power and mobility of tanks and aircraft to a devastating force. Today's modern tactics are a direct descendant of Blitzkrieg.

Hitler's entire career was a countdown to war. He wanted it since 1918, and now he started it.

Like in most wars, it did not progress as the aggressor expected. He had great victories, but his obsessive involvement with the professional management of the war, first strategically and later at the daily tactical level, with less and less attention to his Generals advise, resulted in several fatal mistakes that resulted in his defeat. During the war he executed his plan to an organized mass murder of the millions of jews among the populations of the countries under his control. About six million European jews were murdered before the war ended, in various ways, from plain shooting, to starvation of prisoners, to murder by poison gas in death camps. Millions of Slavs, both civilians and captured soldiers, were also murdered in various ways, following Hitler's commands that explicitly demanded maximum cruelty. Tens of millions died in the war itself.

As years pass, some neo-Nazis, anti-semitics, and plain ignorants, try to claim that this unprecedented mass murder and mass brutality did not happen, or that it was "Not that bad", or that the numbers were not so big.

It's important to emphasize that there is plenty of detailed and absolutely undisputed evidence that this mass evil, both in detail and in numbers, did happen. And as General Eisenhower said, as he personally witnessed the remaining piles of dead bodies and the extremely starved survivors : "The world must know what happened, and never forget".

In April 30th, 1945, at age 56, still a bachelor, Adolf Hitler's struggle for world domination ended in total defeat. With advancing Soviet forces less than a mile away from his underground bunker in Berlin, he married his mistress, and right after the brief wedding they committed suicide in their private room. She took poison and he fired a pistol at his head. Their bodies were burned.

Jumat, 26 November 2010

Komentar Hitler tentang DMC 5

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Some kids like to wash their hands, but Sarah does it too much. She wants to stop, but her hands just don't feel clean enough and she can't make herself turn off the water. Sometimes she scrubs her hands until they are red and raw. After eating, she feels she has to wash again.

Because she spends so much time washing, Sarah has to rush to get to school on time. At school, she tries not to touch doorknobs or handrails, worrying that if she does she may catch a serious disease. Sometimes, Sarah gets behind in her classwork because she feels that she needs to keep checking it over and over.

During a quiz or test Sarah checks and rechecks every answer and erases anything that isn't perfectly straight or neat. Sometimes she erases so hard it tears the paper, but she can't help it. Sarah gets a bad feeling that if everything isn't exactly right, something terrible may happen. All this worrying, checking, and fixing takes so long that Sarah hardly ever finishes the test before time is up. So even though she knows the work, she often gets an incomplete mark or even fails.

Sarah tries so hard to hide her habits. She worries that she might be going crazy or that people would think she's weird if they knew what she was doing. Sarah knows that the time she spends washing and checking could be spent having fun with friends or doing her schoolwork, but she can't seem to stop herself. That's because Sarah has obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

What Is OCD?

OCD is a type of anxiety (say: ang-zye-uh-tee) that happens when there is a problem with the way the brain deals with normal worrying and doubts. Kids with OCD worry a lot. Sometimes they feel afraid that bad things could possibly happen to them, sometimes they feel that something bad could happen to people they love, or sometimes they feel like they have to get things "just right" and have to check to make sure.

Like Sarah, some kids with OCD are afraid of getting dirty or catching germs. Others always worry that their parents will get sick or hurt. Some kids feel that they have to say things a certain number of times, ask questions over and over again, or keep things super-clean as a way to keep bad things from happening.

Some kids even worry about thinking bad thoughts. They sort of believe that thinking bad things could make them come true.

Some kids may also worry about things being out of "order" or not "just right" and they may worry about losing "useless" items or feel the need to collect them.

People with OCD worry so much that they can spend many hours, or even the whole day, worrying about things and trying to make sure the bad things they worry about don't happen.

Normal Worry or OCD?

Of course, it's normal to worry now and then. Everyone does. Kids may worry about getting lost or that something will happen to their parents. They may sometimes feel afraid that they will get sick or hurt. It's normal for kids to worry once in awhile about burglars, fires, or earthquakes. Sometimes, worrying can help kids learn how to be safe and careful. Normal worries come and go without causing too much of a problem.

But OCD is much more than normal worry. Instead, the worry is really intense and it can happen over and over again. With OCD, the brain replays the worry thoughts and if nothing is done, the worry feeling can get worse and worse.

These frequent worry thoughts are called obsessions (say: ob-sesh-unz), and the behaviors people do to try to make the worry thoughts go away are called compulsions (say: kum-pul-shunz).

What Are Obsessions?

A kid who has OCD might have obsessions about illness or injury or cleanliness. And these obsessive worries just don't quit. The brain keeps repeating them instead of moving on to something else. It can be a lot like that awful song you hear that gets stuck in your head. No matter how much you don't want to hear it, your brain just keeps playing it back. The difference is that the obsessive thoughts come with anxiety.

Having upsetting thoughts that you can't get rid of can feel terrible and scary. And having so many worry thoughts can make it hard to concentrate on anything else. OCD can take the fun out of almost anything.

With OCD, someone may have obsessions about:

  • germs or dirt
  • illness or injury (involving the person or someone else)
  • coming across unlucky numbers or words
  • things being even or straight
  • things being perfect or just right in a certain way
  • making mistakes or not being sure
  • doing or thinking something bad

What Are Compulsions?

Compulsions are the behaviors, or actions, that someone with OCD does to try to shut down the worry thoughts. Another name for compulsions is rituals. By doing compulsions, people with OCD hope to keep bad things they worry about from happening. They believe that doing a certain ritual will make the bad feeling go away and, for a while, it often does. They feel scared that if they don't do the ritual something bad will happen. Some kids may have a difficult time explaining a reason for their rituals and they do them "just because." But in general, by doing a ritual, someone with OCD is trying to feel absolutely certain that something bad won't happen.

Of course, plenty of people who don't have OCD have rituals or actions that are important to them. Maybe you tap your pencil three times before starting a tough test or sing a certain song just before diving off the high dive. Perhaps you have a lucky number or even a lucky pair of socks. But OCD compulsions are much more than doing something just for luck.

Kids with OCD feel they have to do certain things over and over to feel protected from unlucky events or make the anxiety go away. Kids with OCD don't really want to be doing rituals. But when you have OCD, performing the rituals seems like that's the only way to feel safe from bad things happening.

And the more kids with OCD do these rituals, the more they feel like they have to do them. Kids with OCD can end up spending so much time on rituals that they have little time left for the things they really do want to do.

Here are some OCD compulsions:

  • lots of hand washing or showering (doing this way more than usual or having a hard time stopping)
  • counting (like having to count 25 white cars before going into school)
  • touching (like touching every single fence post between home and the bus stop)
  • checking things over and over (such as doors, locks, or stoves)
  • doing things a certain number of times (like having to try on five dresses before leaving your room)
  • arranging things in a very particular or neat way
  • asking the same question over and over
  • tying and retying shoes over and over until they feel just right
  • re-reading, erasing, and re-writing

What Causes OCD?

Obsessive-compulsive disorder isn't contagious, so you can't catch it from someone like you can a cold. Second, kids with OCD have not done anything wrong or bad to get it. It's not their fault that they have it.

Nobody knows exactly how and why some people get OCD, though scientists are beginning to learn about it. Experts know that:

  • OCD runs in families. Many kids with OCD have another person in their family who has OCD or another type of anxiety. Exactly how OCD is passed on in a family is not yet known, but scientists are trying to learn about genes that may get passed on that make people more sensitive to worry problems like OCD.
  • OCD comes from a problem with the way the mind handles messages about fear and doubt. This problem probably has to do with the chemicals that carry messages to nerve cells in the brain. If the flow of these chemicals gets "blocked," or if there is not enough of them, messages about doubts and worry seem to get "stuck." This leaves a person with a feeling that something's not right and creates lots of worry thoughts.
  • Some experts are studying the connection between OCD and the body's immune system response to a strep infection. In some cases, it seems that OCD and strep infections may be related. When OCD starts after a strep infection, the symptoms appear suddenly and very intensely. Most people who get strep infections, though, don't get OCD.

Who Gets OCD?

Kids with OCD are not alone. In the United States, about 1 million children and teens, both boys and girls, have OCD. That's about 1 in every 200 children and teens. In some studies including adults, OCD was reported as commonly as 1 in 50 people. You might know someone who has OCD and not even realize it.

What's Life Like for Someone With OCD?

Living with OCD can be very hard. Compulsions often take up lots of time and energy, making it hard to finish homework, do chores, or have any fun. Some kids even find it difficult to go to school or make friends. Sometimes kids feel ashamed. They know the behaviors seem silly to other people, so they often keep it to themselves. It can be really difficult to talk about OCD! But dealing with something all alone can make it even harder.

Sometimes, even parents and friends who know about a person's OCD have a hard time understanding that OCD is not just a bad habit. They might act impatient or make it seem like a person could just stop if he or she tried hard enough. But with OCD, the need to do rituals can feel too strong to ignore. Some kids say that OCD is like hearing a constant, nagging voice that tells them bad things could happen if they don't do certain things. Some kids say it seems like OCD takes over everything.

Treatment for OCD

Treatment can really help kids with OCD get better. OCD can be treated in two ways: with medicine and behavior therapy. Medicines that help brain chemicals work properly can help kids with OCD. How? These medicines can make the obsessions and compulsions feel less intense, and they also help tone down the worry and fear. By itself, medicine doesn't completely fix OCD, and many kids with OCD don't need medicine to get better. But for some kids, medicine sure does help.

With or without medicine, a special type of "talk therapy" is the most important part of treatment for kids with OCD. This type of therapy is called cognitive behavior therapy (also called cognitive-behavioral therapy). For most kids with OCD, cognitive behavior therapy helps them learn to deal with anxiety, to face fears, to resist compulsions, and to slowly but surely conquer OCD.

What's Behavior Therapy for OCD Like?

Lots of mental health specialists, psychiatrists, psychologists, and counselors (also called therapists) are trained to do the cognitive behavior therapy that works for OCD. The therapist might start by just getting to know the child and parents. The therapist might ask about favorite activities or TV shows, pets or hobbies, or particular sports.

The therapist will also ask some questions about problems with worry and rituals that the child has been having. Then the therapist will explain about OCD and how the cognitive behavior therapy works to help it get better. The therapist will help parents understand the child's OCD and what they can do at home to help it get better, too.

In cognitive behavior therapy for OCD, kids learn different ways to deal with their worries without doing a ritual. At first, it may seem hard to stop doing rituals, but the therapist can teach kids how to feel safe enough to try. It's definitely tough at first, but if they stick with it, kids begin to feel stronger and braver against OCD.

After learning about ways to get their worries under control, kids start to practice them. As with anything new (such as playing the piano or kicking a soccer goal), the more someone practices, the better he or she can do it. When kids practice what they learn in behavior therapy, they find out it actually works!

Kids with OCD usually go to therapy about once a week (or sometimes more often) for a while, then less often as they begin to get better. Getting better can take anywhere from a few months to a few years.

It's important to remember that with some help, kids with OCD can get better. Kids usually are really relieved when the symptoms of OCD get weaker and they begin to feel stronger. It feels good to be free of OCD!

Reviewed by: Elana Pearl Ben-Joseph, MD
Date reviewed: November 2008
Originally reviewed by: David V. Sheslow, PhD

Sabtu, 20 November 2010

Black Holes


Black holes are the densest, most massive singular objects in the universe. Formed in one of three main processes, they exert so much gravitational force that nothing - not even light - can escape their pull. Since nothing can ever come out, it is called a hole. Since not even light nor other electromagnetic radiation can escape, it is called a black hole.

Black Holes

A black hole can be formed in the manner described above, but also in two other ways. The first is that if a star has more than nine solar masses when it goes supernova, then it will collapse into a black hole. The reason that a neutron star stops collapsing is the strong nuclear force, the fundamental force that keeps the center of an atom from collapsing. However, once a star is this big, the gravitational force is so strong that it overwhelms this force and collapses the atom completely. Now there is nothing to hold back collapse, and it collapses into a point (or, in theory, a ring) of infinite density. Stephen Hawking proposed a third way a black hole could form, theorizing that trillions were produced in the Big Bang with some still existing today. This theory is not as widely accepted.

The infinite density of the black hole causes such a strong gravitational well that not even light can escape from it. Since nothing can ever come out, it is called a hole. Since not even light or other electromagnetic radiation can escape, it is called a black hole.

Kerr Black Hole SchematicA black hole's anatomy is pretty simple. The hole itself is known as a singularity. This is the very center of the black hole, and is where the mass of the original star (and all acquired matter) lies. In a Kerr black hole (a black hole that assumes the star's core was spinning and had a magnetic field when it collapsed), the singularity is theorized to be ring-shaped. In a black hole that does not spin, the singularity is a dimensionless point of infinite density.

No one knows what the singularity is like. Some believe it looks like "quantum foam." Others disagree and think it is more solid. Whatever it is, it is governed by physical laws that are not yet understood. No one knows if an object drawn into the hole would smash into it, becoming part of it, or if it would somehow travel through it (as occurs in popular science fiction).

Moving out from the center, the next part is the inner event horizon. Between the inner event horizon and the singularity, space is believed to be relatively normal - except for the fact that all objects are drawn towards the singularity and cannot escape.

Next out is the outer event horizon. This marks the boundary at which the escape velocity is greater than the speed of light, and all known objects are drawn into the hole. This also marks the "outer edge" of the black hole; we cannot see into it, for no form of known radiation can escape the gravitational pull from this point inward.

The next part of the black hole is only present in a spinning black hole. The ergosphere is a region of space where all particles are drawn in a circular path that match the hole's rotation. However, within the ergosphere, matter and energy can still escape the hole's grasp. The outer edge of the ergosphere is called the static limit. This is the distance that matter must maintain in order to keep a stable orbit and not be trapped by the hole's rotation.

NOTE: The only physical part of a black hole is the singularity. The other parts mentioned are mathematical boundaries. There is no physical barrier called an event horizon, but it marks the boundaries between types of space under the influences of the singularity.

Other parts of a black hole are present only in "active" black holes. The accretion disk is matter that has been trapped in orbit around the black hole. It will gradually be pulled into the hole. As it gets closer, its speed increases, and it also gains energy and begins to emit light. This is the radiation that astronomers can use to determine how much the black hole "weighs." By using the Doppler effect , astronomers can determine how fast the material is revolving around the black hole, and thus can infer its mass. Most black holes that have been found usually weigh several million solar masses.

NASA Black HoleNo black hole has actually been imaged in a telescope. Actually, this is in itself impossible because, simply by definition, one cannot see "nothing." A black hole can only be spotted by observing how the material around it acts (inferred in the method in the previous paragraph). Through this method, astronomers have observed many dozens of black holes; they usually are found in the center of galaxies, and some believe that every galaxy harbors a black hole in its center.

The rendering at the right depicts what a binary system with a black hole might look like, with it pulling matter off its companion star to form the accretion disk. NASA created this image.

What would happen if you were to fall into a black hole? As the you approach the black hole, your watch would begin to run slower than the watch of your colleagues on the spaceship. Also, your comrades notice that you begin to take on a reddish color. This is due to the warping of space in the vicinity of the hole. Then, just before you "enter" the hole (pass through the outer event horizon), your friends would see you apparently "frozen" there, just outside the event horizon and to them, your watch would have stopped (if they could observe it). They would never see you enter the hole, because at that distance from the singularity, an object must travel at the speed of light to maintain its distance. Thus your dim, red image would stay frozen in their eyes for as long as the hole exists.

However, from your vantage point, as you enter the black hole, nothing has changed. As you look "out" of the hole, the universe still looks relatively normal. However, you are drawn towards the singularity, and cannot escape its grasp. At this point, modern physics does not know what would happen. The most likely outcome is that you are compacted into a miniscule size upon the singularity.

However, you would not actually survive the fall into the hole. The immense warping of space around the hole would cause a spaghettification effect - you would be pulled apart because your feet (assuming they went feet first) would be far greater than the force on your head, and they you would be pulled as one pulls dough into a rope. This would be rather unpleasant, as well as fatal.

White Holes

The idea of a white hole is the opposite of a black hole, and is entertained more in science fiction than in actual science journals. Some believe it is the "other side" of a black hole. It is theorized to spew matter and energy out. A flaw in this theory, as many scientists have noted, is that the matter ejected from the white hole would accumulate in the vicinity of the hole, and then collapse upon itself, forming a black hole.


Jumat, 19 November 2010

Papercraft: Pokemon Gible

443 / GIBLE - Pokémon Papercraft
Name: Gible
Type: Dragon / Ground
Species: Land Shark Pokémon
Height: 0.7 m (2′04″)
Weight: 20.5 kg (42.5 lbs.)
Interesting Facts: Gible hide in their holes and wait for prey to pass by. They occasionally hold dare competitions with each other which can put them in danger. When they bite, they hurt themselves out of clumsiness. It has been depicted in the anime that Gible licks people it is fond of, like a dog. It evolves into Gabite starting at level 24, which evolves into Garchomp starting at level 48.

Height: 12.0 cm/4.7 in
Width: 15.7 cm/ 6.2 in
Depth: 15.4 cm/6.1 in
Pages: 3
Pieces: 43
Level: Easy/Medium
Designer: Brandon
Photo: Brandon
NOTES: Build from the fin down, closing between the legs at the bottom. When attaching the jets to the head, put a somewhat large drop of glue onto the ends of the points on the head, so that it anchors on the inside of the jets. You also have the choice of notched fin or un-notched fin when building.
The only really difficult part about this are the jets- besides them, this craft is really simple. Just take care with the smaller parts and you should have no trouble.

Download: A4 / Letter


Animator vs Animation

Senin, 08 November 2010

Gundam Paper Craft, alternatif Gundam Model Kit

Bagi para pecinta Gundam, memiliki sebuah Gundam model Kit adalah suatu keinginan tersendiri, namun harganya yang sangat mahal kadang menjadi penghalang untuk memenuhi hobby yang satu ini. Tapi sekarang ada alternatif yang lebih murah untuk memiliki sebuah mainan Gundam selain model kit-nya, kalau tidak mampu membeli, kenapa tidak membuatnya sendiri?hehe..,merakit model kit aja susah n belum tentu bisa, ini malah mau buat sendiri.
Caranya adalah dengan membuat Gundam dengan papercraft. Papercraft adalah kerajinan tangan dengan bahan utama kertas, dari kertas itu kita bisa membuat bermacam-macam model, tidak hanya gundam, namun tentu saja membutuhkan tingkat ketelitian, konsentrasi, dan waktu luang yang banyak.
Hasil bentuk akhirnya juga tidak terlalu jauh berbeda dengan Gundam model-kit, asal dikerjakan dengan sungguh-sungguh dan teliti.
Nah berikut ini contoh Hi-nu Gundam Model kit

Dan berikut ini adalah Papercraft Hi-nu Gundam

Bagaimana?keren kan..? gak jauh berbeda kan, ini dari kertas lho, ya.. hati-hati aja jangan sampe kena air ato sampe dimainin ma adik kecil, bisa runyam ntar..,hehe
Jika tertarik dan mau bikin, di download aja nih disini.
Link-linkk referensi untuk papercraft:
tidak cuma Gundam yang bisa dibikin papercraft, bahkan ada yang model manusia, nah silakan berkreasi


INdonesiana: KERIS Traditional Weapon of Indonesia

Keris is one of Indonesian’s traditional weapon, especiallyJavanese. Since 40th Century, Indonesia people has been using this weapon for any kind of purpose. In ancient times, they used it during war time to defend themselves, or as symbolic icon for a kingdom or an empire. In modern times, it has now become prestigious collections and heritage from their ancestors, and some believes that Keris has “a mystic power” of it’s own thus, is believe to be able to bring luck or protections to it’s bearer.

Every Keris is custom made. Created by it’s creator, the “Empu”, keris is made based on specific order and is talking the bearer characters into consideration during the making. Therefore, it has it’s own name, it’s own style and is made made based on specific purposes. Each of this weapon has it’s own rishfulness and characteristic. Not only of their appearance, but every keris is made with full integrity and is contain a lot of faith put by their creator.

That is why this weapon is very special and most of the time, you can feel it’s mystical aura, the first time you saw it.

Keris Luk 13

Dapur : Naga Sastra
Pamor : Wos Wutah
Tanguh : Mataram Senopaten
Wrangka : Branggah Jogjakarta

Naga Sastra is one of the name (Dapur) of Keris with Luk 13. it’s “Gendik”(handle) styles is in the shape of dragon’s head. It’s body straight away to the table of “pucuk bilah”. Although it is hardly to find, the most legendary one of the “Dapur” Keris of this kind is “Keris Naga Sastra Tangguh Tua”. Mostly, Keris “Dapur Naga Sastra” adorned with gold “Kinatah”, so the the style reflects the Glorius and Powerfull.

This Keris has it’s own style with slender blade that resembling mostly of Keris Mataram Senopaten Style. It is similar to Majapahit KEris, but the iron and the “pamor” arrangement is different. The style of the “Wadidhang” shows that it is a Mataram Senopaton’s Style.

This stylecame from the end of Majapahit Empire or beginning era of Mataram Senopaten’s Empire (end of 15 century or beginning of it century) this Keris used to have “Kinantah Kamoragan” (with gold slide) but along with the passing time it has been slide off. But as one assembly, this keris Dapur Naga Sastra is indicated as a snake and also known as Keris Dapur Sisik Sewu.

In Javanese Culture, Dragon is a reflection of protector. That is whywe could find many of these image at Hindu temple’s entrance or in other ornamented that was built in ancient tie. Beside believed as protector, image of a Dragon also reflects Power that is why Keris with Dapur Naga Sastra is perceived to be the most powerfull and most valuable than other Keris.

Keris Luk 7

Dapur : Carubuk
Pamor : Tumpal Keli
Tangguh : Blambangan
Wrangka : Branggah Jogja Kayu Cendana
Pondok : Slorok Jogja Perak

In Javanese terminology, 7 is called “Pitu” or “Pitulangan” which means Help or Rescue.

In the Golden age of Majapahit Empire (estimed in 15th century), Malaka’s Canal is known as a trade center.

During that era, a lot of people around the world used this canal as a trading passage. However, as a business center in this area, they were also facing problems from pirates which threatened this busy line.

To fight the pirates and to provide security for the surrounding area, Majapahit’s Emperor dedicater “Keris Carubuk Tumpal Keli Blambangan” as a symbol to fight against pirates, with expectation that Sultan Malaka would have them to secure the Malaka’s Canal from this pirates, honoring the Maja pahit’s effort to provide security.

Finally, Sultan Malaka provided rescue team to secure Malaka’s Canal area from the pirates. After that, The Malaka’s Canal is back to normal.


Minggu, 07 November 2010

GBA: Cool RPG Games

Kingdom Hearts  - Chain of Memories (U)(Venom) Box Art

Game Title Screen:

Kingdom Hearts  - Chain of Memories (U)(Venom) Title Screen

Game Snapshot:

Kingdom Hearts -  Chain of Memories (U)(Venom) Snapshot

Game Release Info (NFO):

                                      __________         ____________      . 
________ ___\ _.___________/________\ | /_________\ |______ \
\ | \ | _ //\ \| / _ \\ \ | \ \
\ | \\ |_ / \\ \ \ _/ / \_ \ | / \
\ | .\\ _/_/ \_ \ \ / / \ ' / \_
. \ | ||\ \/ / |\ _____\ / // \____|\ / . /
<\-\__________|______________/______|-\/-----\___________/-------:-\/|___ /_/
.\ : karl* . / :
| ------------------------------------------------------------------- |
| |
| Title : Kingdom Hearts: Chain of Memories (c) Square Enix |
| |
| Origin : USA Supplier : The Playmakers |
| System : Gameboy Advance Filename : V-HEARTS.ZIP |
| Size : 256 Megabit Released : 12-08-2004 |
| :
`---------------------------------------------------------------------- --->
<--- ----------------------------------------------------------------------.
. |
| ------------------------------------------------------------------- |
| |
| A unique collaboration between Disney and Square Enix, Kingdom |
| Hearts Chain of Memories picks up where the original Kingdom Hearts |
| game left off. Sora's new journey begins at a crossroads of fate, |
| where friendships are lost and darkness overwhelms the heart This |
| installment features a brand new card-battle system tailored |
| specially for the Game Boy Advance. Experience this exciting new |
| adventure on the go! |
| :
`---------------------------------------------------------------------- --->

VENOM... Eat your fucking hearts out!


Medabots -  Metabee Version (U)(Oldskool) Box Art

Game Title Screen:

Medabots -  Metabee Version (U)(Oldskool) Title Screen

Game Snapshot:

Medabots -  Metabee Version (U)(Oldskool) Snapshot

Game Release Info (NFO):

.__ ___________________ ______ _______ _______________________________|_ | __/ _ \ / ______\_ \ .| / / // / ___|__ / \ .::| // / / _/_/ / / // O L D S K O O L .::.| \____________/\____/________/____________/ --------------- .::| . -rtx/art .| | ________ .______ /\_____ __________ ___________________ | | / __/_____| |/ / __/ _ \__/ _ \ / : _\_______ \. / / / / / / // / ______ / _/ //| \\ \// / // / / _/_/ / >_____//_______/l______|\______\____________/\____________/\____/________/ . / ' . |::. ..: P R O U D L Y P R E S E N T S :.. | -|-------------------------------------------------------------------------' Medabots Metabee Gold - (C) Natsume --------------------------------------------------------------------- >> Come and join our crew: We search Trainermakers & Suppliers << :-------------------------------- ---:. | RELEASE INFORMATION............. | .:------------------------------------:------------------------------------: | Language......: ENGLISH | Supplied by...: amptor | | Genre.........: Action | System........: Gameboy Advance | | Size..........: 64MB | | :--- --------------------------------| Note..........: You know you miss | | : us. | | : p.s. we support | | : numbering for | | : chronology, chill.| :-------------------------------- ---:. More Medabots. More Power. More Adventures!(ita) Kids everywhere are losing their prized Medabot Medals and Medaparts to a diabolical team of warped Medamaniacs! Join Ikki and his friedns as they track down the source of the trouble and beat the Rubberobos at their own twisted game! Completely customize your Medabots from hundreds of different Medaparts and create daunting team tactics for multiple Medabot Robattles! . Features characters and Medabots seen on the Medabots TV animated series! . Link up with other Medafighters and Robattle head to head or trade prized Medaparts! . 30+ hours of amazing adventures, mind-boggling mysterious and intense Robattles! . Metabee Version includes special Medaparts and Medals you won't find in Medabots: Rokusho! amptor - keeping it real oldskewl in 2oo5. it ain't nothin but a g thang babay [Snoop Doggy Dogg] One, two, three and to the fo' Snoop Doggy Dogg and Dr. Dre is at the do' Ready to make an entrance, so back on up (Cause you know we 'bout had to rip shit up) Gimme the microphone first, so I can bust like a bubble Compton and Long Beach together, now you know you in trouble Ain't nothin' but a G thang, baaaaabay! Two loc'ed out G's so we're craaaaazay! Death Row is the label that paaaaays me! Unfadable, so please don't try to fade this (Hell yeah) But, uh, back to the lecture at hand Perfection is perfected, so I'm 'a let 'em understand From a young G's perspective And before me dig out a bitch I have ta' find a contraceptive You never know she could be earnin' her man, And learnin' her man, and at the same time burnin' her man Now you know I ain't wit that shit, Lieutenant Ain't no pussy good enough to get burnt while I'm up in it (yeah) Now that's realer than real-deal Holyfield And now all you hookas and ho's know how I feel Well if it's good enough to get broke off a proper chunk I'll take a small piece of some of that funky stuff Hook: Snoop Doggy Dogg It's like this and like that and like this and uh It's like that and like this and like that and uh It's like this and like that and like this and uh Dre, creep to the mic like a phantom [Dr. Dre] Well I'm peepin', and I'm creepin', and I'm creep-in' But I damn near got caught, 'cause my beeper kept beepin' Now it's time for me to make my impression felt So sit back, relax, and strap on your seatbelt You never been on a ride like this befo' With a producer who can rap and control the maestro At the same time with the dope rhyme that I kick You know, and I know, I flow some ol funky shit To add to my collection, the selection Symbolizes dope, take a toke, but don't choke If ya' do, ya' have no clue On what me and my homey Snoop Dogg came to do Hook: Snoop Doggy Dogg & Dr. Dre It's like this and like that and like this and uh It's like that and like this and like that and uh It's like this, and who gives a fuck about those So jus' chill, 'til the next episode [Snoop Doggy Dogg] Fallin' back on that ass with a hellified gangsta' lean Gettin' funky on the mic like a' old batch o' collard greens It's the capital S, oh yes, the fresh N-double O-P D-O-double G-Y D-O-double G ya' see Showin' much flex when it's time to wreck a mic pimpin' ho's and clockin' a grip like my name was Dolomite Yeah, and it don't quit I think they in a mood for some mothafuckin' G shit So Dre. (What up Dogg?) We gotta give 'em what dey want (What's that, G?) We gotta break 'em off somethin' (Hell yeah) And it's gotta be bumpin' (City of Compton!) [Dr. Dre] It's where it takes place so I'm a ask your attention Mobbin like a mothafucka but I ain't lynchin Droppin' the funky shit that's makin the sucka niggaz mumble When I'm on the mic, it's like a cookie, they all crumble Try to get close, and your ass'll get smacked My mothafuckin homie Doggy Dogg has my back Never let me slip, 'cause if I slip, then I'm slippin' But if I got my Nina, then you know I'm straight trippin' And I'm a continue to put the rap down, put the mack down And if your bitches talk shit, I have ta' put the smack down Yeah, and ya' don't stop I told you I'm just like a clock when I tick and I tock But I'm never off, always on, 'til the break dawn C-O-M-P-T-O-N, and the city they call Long Beach Puttin' the shit together Like my nigga D.O.C., no one can do it better Hook: Dr. Dre & Snoop Doggy Dogg Like this, that and this and uh It's like that and like this and like that and uh It's like this, and who gives a fuck about those So jus' chill, 'til the next episode - -- ------------------------------ -- - :-------------------------------- ---:. | MEMBERS LIST.................... | .:------------------------------------:--- --------------------------------: | - Amptor - CQBS - Creep - | INTERNET/BBS HEADQUARTERS....... | | - Duz - Fazwonga! - McFly - |------------------------------------: | | | :--- --------------------------------| Cardiac Arrest [.RHQ/BBS] | | | | | | | | Contact E-mail [fazwonga@gmx.de] | :-------------------------------- ---:. - -- ------------------------------ -- - :-------------------------------- ---:. | JOIN THE SKOOL.................. | .:------------------------------------:--- --------------------------------: | We search suppliers for european | GREETINGS/RESPECTS.............. | | and international/english gameboy |------------------------------------: | advance and nintendo ds games. | andeveron, fAZ!, archmage, | | | Public Enemy, speechles, spoonman | :--- --------------------------------| Eurasia, Anthrox & Swat, ULFC | | Quasar, SNK, SR , The Corporation | | Trashman'05, Quasar, Arcadia, CPL | | NIL, Capital, High Society. | :-------------------------------- ---:. - -- ------------------------------ -- -

Pokemon  Mystery Dungeon - Red Rescue Team (U)(RDG) Box Art

Game Title Screen:

Pokemon  Mystery Dungeon - Red Rescue Team (U)(RDG) Title Screen

Game Snapshot:

Pokemon Mystery  Dungeon - Red Rescue Team (U)(RDG) Snapshot

Game Release Info (NFO):

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The Process of How to Build an Atomic Bomb

With a few parts from a hardware store and some know-how, it is possible to build a weapon of mass destruction. Well, as long as you can find a few pounds of plutonium on Ebay to fuel it.

In 1905 Albert Einstein wrote a number of revolutionary physics papers including his Special Theory of Relativity. One of the formulas that came out of this, almost as an afterthought, was E=mc². That is: energy is equal to mass times the speed of light squared. What Einstein was saying is that matter - everything around us we can touch and see - is actually the same thing as energy, just in a different form. The upshot of this is that it should be possible to convert energy to matter or, visa versa, convert matter to energy.

A-bomb vs. H-bomb

A 10 megaton H-bomb test.

An A-bomb ( or atomic bomb) is generally considered to be one based on the fission principal - that is the splitting of atoms. An H-bomb (or hydrogen bomb) is based on the principal of fusion, that is the fusing of atoms together. H-bombs are generally much more powerful than A-bombs. The largest A-bomb tops out at the equivalent of 0.7 megatons of TNT, while the largest H-bomb ever produced was 50 megatons. The heat and pressures needed in order to get an H-bomb's fusion reaction going, however, can only be produced on earth at the heart of a fission bomb, so in effect every H-bomb has an A-bomb as a part of its mechanism

The energy we release every day when driving our car or cooking on a stove comes from chemical reactions. Two or more chemicals react through the motion of electrons and the forming and breaking of chemical bonds. One familiar form of chemical reaction is combustion. For example, the oxygen in the air reacts with the substances in a candle to release heat and light. In chemical reactions the amount of matter involves never changes, if you were able to capture all the soot, smoke and carbon dioxide released by the candle you would find they weigh exactly the same amount as the original candle and oxygen that reacted with it. The material changed form and released energy but did not disappear.

Einstein's formula suggested that it was possible to get energy by what we now call a nuclear reaction. This is the conversion of matter to energy. What's more, the amount of energy available in even a small amount of matter is, according to the formula, tremendous. Matter is just sort of a condensed version of energy, but it isn't a one-to-one relationship. The conversion factor is the speed of light (already a huge number) squared (which makes it a really big number). We can picture this relationship by thinking about water and steam. You can cool steam (think of this as the energy) down and it becomes water (think of this as matter) or heat water up to make steam. It takes a lot of steam to create a few drops of water though, but only few a ounces of water to create a whole room full of steam. The same is true of energy and matter. In the atomic bomb that destroyed Hiroshima only 600 milligrams of uranium (less than the weight of a dime) was converted to energy, but it released the same amount of power as at least 13,000 tons of the conventional chemical explosive TNT.

Converting matter to energy is no easy trick, however. The sun does it naturally by a process called fusion. The sun, a gigantic ball of mostly hydrogen gas, has intense pressures and heat created at its core by its gravity. It is under this heat and pressure that the hydrogen atoms fuse to create helium and release energy. Re-creating the intense conditions required to generate fusion on earth isn't easy, however, so atomic bombs uses another process called fission.

1)A neutron strikes a uranium atom 2)The uranium atom is split into a krypton atom and a barium atom releasing some binding energy along with more neutrons. 3)The neutrons strike other uranium atoms starting the process all over again. (Copyright Lee Krystek, 2007)

Fission Reactions

A fission reaction is just the opposite of fusion. Instead of atoms being put together, they are split into pieces. When a neutron (a subatomic particle) with enough energy hits an atom of radioactive material like uranium, the uranium atom will split into two smaller atoms and some of the energy that held the original atom together is released. If the right type of uranium is used, the split will also release additional neutrons capable of splitting other atoms. If this process continues with each new split releasing neutrons which in turn split other atoms it is called a chain reaction. Because of the speed involved in a nuclear reaction, billions of atoms can be split in a tiny fraction of a second. If the reaction proceeds at a sedate level the fission produces energy in a controllable manner. This is what is going on in the heart of a nuclear power plant. The energy released is used to heat water to the point of steam and the steam spins turbines connected to generators to make electricity. If the reaction proceeds at an uncontrolled level, however, a nuclear explosion can result.

This might seem to make nuclear power plants potential atomic bombs, but the uranium used in the plants is not the type that could sustain a reaction at a rate high enough to cause an explosion by itself (nuclear power plants are subject to explosions caused by steam pressure and other non-nuclear forces, however). In fact, engineering a device that does not tear itself apart before the explosion really gets underway is one of the main design problems of building a bomb.

Bomb Design

Uranium or plutonium can be used as fuel for atomic bombs. Both are highly radioactive. This means they are constantly shedding subatomic particles including neutrons. Only certain isotopes of these materials - like uranium 235 and plutonium 239 - consistently give off neutrons of such high energy that they will split atoms. When enough of the material is put together, a chain reaction starts and the mass is said to be critical. The term used for a mass of radioactive material with a growing chain reaction, splitting more and more atoms with each moment, is supercritical. While putting enough uranium 235 together in a single mass will make it supercritical (and create a surge of radiation that will kill you if you are standing near it unprotected - see "A Supercritical Accident" below) it is not enough to create a bomb. The material must be held in a compressed state long enough for the reaction to take place while resisting the initial energy of the explosion that will try and tear it apart. There are two well-known approaches to doing this. The first is known as the "gun" method.

The Gun Method

A conventional explosive drives the uranium "bullet" into the "spike;" bringing the mass to supercritical and causing the detonation. (Copyright Lee Krystek, 2007)

The "gun" is the simplest way to build a nuclear weapon. The atomic bomb used on Hiroshima during World War II used this approach. The weapon consists of a tube (much like the barrel of a gun) with half the nuclear charge fixed at one end and the other half (the moving half) at the opposite end. A conventional explosive charge was placed behind the moving portion which can be thought of as the "bullet." When the conventional charge is detonated, the bullet races down the tube and slams into the fixed charge at the other end (referred to as the "spike"). Once the two halves of the nuclear fuel are brought together and held together long enough, the chain reaction starts, the fuel goes supercritical and the explosion takes place.

While the gun method is easy to engineer, it has some drawbacks. The biggest one is the need to make sure the two parts of nuclear fuel come together rapidly enough. As the two sections get about an inch apart, they will start exchanging neutrons that might start a chain reaction. If the two parts go supercritical before they get close enough, the force of the energy released will blow them apart before the main explosion gets underway. This type of failure is known as a "fizzle."

Another problem is that this method is less efficient, requiring between 20 and 25 kilograms (around 44 to 55 pounds) of uranium. Other approaches can use as little as 15 kilograms (about 33 pounds). Given that weapon's grade uranium and plutonium are very hard to get, this is a real disadvantage.

Also, the gun method only works if the uranium is being used as the fuel. The process of creating plutonium generally causes it to be contaminated with other materials which increase the chance of it going supercritical before the two sections are close enough together. This, in turn, increases the chances of a fizzle instead of a blast. To make the gun method work reliably with plutonium, you would have to increase the speed with which the "bullet" approached the "spike" significantly. To do this would mean making the tube impracticality long.

The Implosion Design

Conventional explosives press on the "tamper/pusher," compressing the plutonium until it reaches a supercritical mass. The initiator floods the area with neutrons to help get the chain reaction going. (Copyright Lee Krystek, 2007)

For this reason, if you use plutonium to fuel a bomb you need to use the more sophisticated "implosion" method. With this approach the nuclear fuel is shaped into a sphere (called the "pit"). Conventional explosives are put around it. When these are detonated the force of the explosion squeezes the pit into a supercritical mass long enough for the explosion to take place. While the principle sounds easy, it is difficult to actually make it work. The pit cannot simply be surrounded by high explosives. The shock wave that compresses it must be precisely spherical, otherwise the pit material will escape out through a weak point. To create the necessary explosive force in a perfect sphere, shaped explosive charges (sometimes called explosive lens) are used. The "fatman" bomb the leveled Nagasaki in World War II used 32 charges arranged around the pit like the faces of a soccer ball. In order to create the spherical shock wave it isn't only necessary to get the charges in the right position with the right shape, but they must be detonated at exactly the right time. A charge that detonates late will create a hole in the shock wave through which the pit can escape.

Implosion designs also require a neutron trigger or "initiator" to flood the pit with neutrons during detonation. In "fatman" this was done with a small sphere with layers of beryllium and polonium separated by thin gold foil placed in the center of the pit. An implosion design may also include other layers between the explosives and the pit to create a more powerful explosion. These include a "pusher" (designed to increase the explosive shock wave hitting the pit), a "tamper" (to help the pit from blowing apart too quickly once the explosion starts), and a "reflector" composed of a material that will reflect neutrons back in the pit increasing the amount of fission. In some bomb designs these functions are integrated into a single layer of material.

The implosion design is generally considered to be superior in almost every way to the gun design and it is the choice for any organization with the resources to design and construct it. One of the major advantages of this approach is that it is easy to make the implosion design more efficient by increasing the effectiveness of the conventional explosives. For example, if the pit is squeezed so that the density is doubled during detonation it may yield a 10-kiloton explosion. If that same pit can be compressed to three times its original density, a 40-kiloton explosion can be generated with no additional nuclear fuel. The longer the fission material is allowed to react, the bigger the explosion.

A Supercritical Accident

The plutonium sphere resting in the fatal testbed.

In 1945 an atomic bomb worker, Harry K. Daghlian Jr, was killed while experimenting with plutonium. The test was designed to see just how much of a neutron reflector was needed to push the sphere of plutonium to the edge of going supercritical with the experimenter gauging how close he was getting by listening to a Geiger counter. As he moved the final "brick" of reflective material close to the sphere he realized he should not place it in position, but then it slipped from his hand. Daghlian knocked the brick away, but it was too late. The sphere went supercritical with a flash of blue light. He was exposed to 510 REMs of radiation and after an agonizing illness, died 28 days later.

Could You Build a Bomb?

Building a basic nuclear weapon is not easy, but not all that hard either. In 1964 the U.S. Army decided to see just how difficult it was. They hired two professors that had Ph.Ds in physics, but no experience with nuclear weapons or access to nuclear secrets. The two were given the task of designing an atomic bomb using only information available to the general public. It took them roughly two years, but in the end they designed an implosion style weapon that could have been made in a local machine shop which could have produced an explosion similar to the Hiroshima bomb.

The only thing that they found extremely difficult to do was to get the proper material to fuel the bomb: uranium 235 or plutonium 239. Only a tiny fraction of natural uranium that is mined from the ground is isotope 235 and separating it from the other isotopes is a major chore requiring huge factory complexes working years to isolate just a few pounds. In fact, most weapons programs get around this by utilizing plutonium, which is very rarely in found nature at all, but can be created by exposing more common types of uranium to radiation in a nuclear "breeder" reactor. Plutonium is extremely difficult to handle, however. It is one of the most toxic materials known to man, especially if inhaled.

It is the difficulty of getting and handling these fissionable materials that protects us from people building nuclear bombs in their basements. It is for this reason nonproliferation of nuclear material is a major concern of most governments and there is great apprehension about countries who want to build nuclear reactors capable of "breeding" plutonium fuel. Knowledge of how to build a bomb is hard to control. Fortunately, so far, the materials needed have been much easier to keep track of.

But for how long?

Note all the information in this article has been assembled from unclassified public materials and fall short of the details necessary to build an actual weapon. This article is for information purposes only, and in no way are unauthorized persons encouraged to construct weapons of any sort.