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Sabtu, 25 Juni 2011

The Eiffel Tower, Paris

History

Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower and the
Trocadéro fountains

The Eiffel {y'-ful} Tower, an immense stucture of exposed latticework supports made of puddle iron, was erected for the Paris Exposition of 1889. The Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII of England) officiated at the ceremonial opening. Of the 700 proposals submitted in a design competition, one was unanimously chosen, a radical creation from the French structural engineer Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (b. Dec. 15, 1832, d. Dec. 28, 1923), who was assisted in the design by engineers Maurice Koechlin and Emile Nouguier, and architect Stephen Sauvestre.

However, the controversial tower elicited some strong reactions, and a petition of 300 names — including those of Guy de Maupassant, Émile Zola, Charles Garnier (architect of the Opéra Garnier), and Alexandre Dumas fils — was presented to the city government, protesting its construction. The petition read, "We, the writers, painters, sculptors, architects and lovers of the beauty of Paris, do protest with all our vigour and all our indignation, in the name of French taste and endangered French art and history, against the useless and monstrous Eiffel Tower."

Nature lovers thought that it would interfere with the flight of birds over Paris. But the Eiffel Tower was admired by Rousseau, Utrillo, Chagall, and Delaunay. It was almost torn down in 1909 at the expiration of its 20-year lease, but was saved because of its antenna — used for telegraphy at that time. Beginning in 1910 it became part of the International Time Service. French radio (since 1918), and French television (since 1957) have also made use of its stature. In the 1960s, it was the subject of a wonderful study by semiologist Roland Barthes.

Eiffel Tower
under construction

Eiffel Tower under construction, April 1888

April 1888
Eiffel Tower under construction, July 1888

July 1888
Eiffel Tower under construction, December 1888

December 1888
Eiffel Tower completed, May 1889

completed
May 1889

Built to celebrate the science and engineering achievements of its age, soaring 300m / 984 ft. (320.75m / 1,052 ft. including antenna) and weighing 7000 tons, the structure consists of two visibly distinct parts: a base composed of a platform resting on four separate supports (called pylons or bents) and, above this, a slender tower created as the bents taper upward, rising above a second platform to merge in a unified column.

This unprecedented work, the tallest structure in the world until the Empire State Building was built about 40 years later, had several antecedents. Among them were the iron-supported railway viaducts designed by Eiffel, an arch bridge over the Douro River in Portugal with a span of 160 m (525 ft), and a design for a circular, iron-frame tower proposed by the American engineers Clarke and Reeves for the Centennial Exposition of 1876. Eiffel knew and publicly acknowledged this influence; he was no stranger to the United States, having designed the wrought-iron pylon inside Frederic Bartholdi's Statue of Liberty in 1885. Later in the same year, he had also begun work on the cupola of the Nice observatory.

Eiffel was the leading European authority on the aerodynamics of high frames (he wrote "The Resistance of the Air" in 1913). In the construction of the Eiffel Tower, the curve of the base pylons was precisely calculated so that the bending and shearing forces of the wind were progressively transformed into forces of compression, which the bents could withstand more effectively. Such was Eiffel's engineering wizardry that even in the strongest winds his tower never sways more than 4-1/2 inches. The superskyscrapers erected since 1960, such as the World Trade Center, were constructed in much the same way.

However difficult its birth may have been, the Tour Eiffel is now completely accepted by French citizens, and is internationally recognized as one of the symbols of Paris itself.

Facilities and Views

In the basements of the eastern and western pillars, one can visit the gargantuan 1899 machinery which powers the elevators, an astonishing spectacle reminiscent of a Jules Verne novel. From the Tower's three platforms — especially the topmost — the view of Paris is superb. It is generally agreed that one hour before sunset, the panorama is at its best; don't forget to bring your camera, and experiment with the f-stop settings to capture a dazzling sunset on the Seine. If you can't be there in person, then check out a Live Aerial View of Paris with TF1's webcam online: from the top of the Eiffel Tower, you can see Paris in real time, 24 hours a day, whatever the weather conditions in the French capital. To get the most out of this view of Paris, we suggest you surf their web site between 7:00 AM and 9:00 PM GMT (1:00 AM and 3:00 PM Eastern Time in the U.S.), when the City of Light is at its best.

Eiffel Tower (print)
Eiffel Tower
by Susan Gillette
14" x 18" fine art print
BUY THIS PRINT

First level: 57.63 meters (189 feet). Observatory from which to study the movements of the Eiffel Tower's summit. Kiosk presentation about the mythic painting of the Eiffel Tower. Space CINEIFFEL: offers an exceptional panorama of sights from the Tower. Souvenir shops (yes, every tourist MUST have a miniature replica). Restaurant "Altitude 95" (phone 01-45-55-20-04). Post office, with special stamps "Paris Eiffel Tower ". Panoramic gallery displaying the Monuments of Paris.

Second level: 115.73 meters (379 feet, 8 inches). Panorama of Paris. Telescopes, shops. Animated displays on the operation of the elevators. Jules Verne Restaurant (extremely expensive, reservations absolutely necessary; phone 01-45-55-61-44).

Third level: 276.13 meters (905 feet, 11 inches). Exceptional panoramic views, day or night, of Paris and its surroundings. Recently restored office, featuring wax reproductions of Gustave Eiffel and Thomas Edison in conversation (see photo. Panoramic guide displays to aid orientation. Dioramas presenting the history of this platform.

Probably the best approach to the tower is to take the Métro to the Trocadéro station and walk from the Palais de Chaillot to the Seine. Besides fabulous views, especially when the Trocadéro fountains are in full force, you get a free show from the dancers and acrobats who perform around the Palais de Chaillot. The vast green esplanade beneath the tower is the Parc du Champs-de-Mars, which extends all the way to the 18th-century École Militaire (Military Academy), at its southeast end. This formal lawn was once a parade ground for French troops.

The Eiffel Tower at night is one of the great sights of Paris and shouldn't be missed. The gold lighting highlights the delicacy of the steelwork in a way that is missed in daylight. Skip the tour buses and pickpockets on Trocadéro and head up to the École Militaire for a more tranquil view.

Interesting Facts

  • 300 steel workers, and 2 years (1887-1889) to construct it.
  • 15,000 iron pieces (excluding rivets).
  • 2.5 million rivets.
  • 40 tons of paint.
  • 1671 steps to the top.
  • Maximum sway at top caused by wind: 12 cm (4.75 inches).
  • Maximum sway at top caused by metal dilation: 18 cm (7 inches).
  • Total height in 1889: 300.51 meters (985 feet, 11 inches).
  • Total height with television antenna: 320.755 meters (1052 feet, 4 inches).
  • Height varies up to 15 cm depending on temperature.
  • Size of base area: 10,281.96 square meters (2.54 acres).
  • Weight of foundations: 277,602 kg (306 tons).
  • Weight of iron: 7.34 million kg (8092.2 tons).
  • Weight of elevator systems: 946,000 kg (1042.8 tons).
  • Total weight: 8.56 million kg (9441 tons).
  • Pressure on foundation: 4.1 to 4.5 kg per square centimeter, depending on pier (58.26 to 64 lbs. per square inch).
  • Dates of construction: January 26, 1887 to March 31, 1889.
  • Cost of construction: 7.8 million francs ($1.5 million).
  • Total number of visitors during 1889 Exposition: 1,968,287.
  • Total receipts during 1889 Exposition: 5,919,884 francs ($1.14 million).
  • Total number of visitors during 2007: 6,822,000.
Eiffel Tower (print)
Eiffel Tower
(photographer unknown)
24" x 36" fine art print
© NAGR - Eurographics
BUY THIS PRINT

During its lifetime, the Eiffel Tower has witnessed a few strange scenes, including being scaled by a mountaineer in 1954, and two Englishmen parachuting off it in 1984. In 1923, the journalist Pierre Labric (who was later to become mayor of Montmartre) rode a bicycle down from the first level; some accounts say he rode down the stairs, others suggest the exterior of one of the tower's four legs which slope outward.

Politics have also played a role in its life. During World War II, the Germans hung a sign on it that read: "Deutschland Siegt Auf Allen Fronten" ("Germany is victorious on all fronts"). In 1958, a few months before Fidel Castro's rise to power, Cuban revolutionaries hung their red-and-black flag from the first level, and, in 1979, an American from Greenpeace hung one that read: "Save the Seals". In 1989, the Tower celebrated its centennial with music and fireworks (the show lasted 89 minutes).

Operation

The Eiffel Tower is owned by the City of Paris, which has subcontracted its maintenance and daily operations since 2005 to SETE (Société d'Exploitation de la Tour Eiffel), a public utility.

More than 500 people bring the Eiffel Tower to life each day. About one half are employed by SETE, the others are concessionaires (souvenir boutiques, restaurants, telescope operations, ATMs, behind-the-scene tours) and civil service employees (police, fire personnel, post office, weather).

Papercrafts: The 4 Regis

REGIROCK


377 / REGIROCK - Pokémon Papercraft
Name: Regirock
Type: Rock
Species: Rock Peak Pokémon
Height: 1.7 m (5′07″)
Weight: 230.0 kg (507.1 lbs.)
Interesting Facts: Regirock is a large golem made of rocks. Regirock has a pattern on its face that resembles a capital letter "H". The rocks it is made of come from several different places. The reason for this is that whenever it gets damaged in battle, it searches for rocks to repair itself with. This habit also contributes to Regirock's patchwork appearance. What is even stranger is that Regirock has no internal organs.

THE PAPER MODEL
Height: 18.0 cm/ 7.1 in
Width: 23.8 cm/ 9.4 in
Depth: 11.9 cm/ 4.7 in
Pages: 6
Pieces: 49
Level: Medium
Designer: Brandon
Photo: Skeleman
NOTES: Not difficult but placement of all of the parts is very important. This is most important for the legs because inaccurate placement for them will easily cause it to become unbalanced.

Download: A4 / Letter

REGICE


378 / REGICE - Pokémon Papercraft
Name: Regice
Type: Ice
Species: Iceberg Pokémon
Height: 1.8 m (5′11″)
Weight: 175.0 kg (385.8 lbs.)
Interesting Facts: Regice cloaks itself in air that is -328 degrees Fahrenheit. It can survive if submerged in molten lava. Due to its extremely frigid body, anyone who approaches it can freeze. It is capable of surviving even extremely hot temperatures. Regice has the unexplainable ability to wield electrical attacks like Zap Cannon.

THE PAPER MODEL
Height: 18.3 cm/ 7.2 in
Width: 26.8 cm/ 10.6 in
Depth: 12.7 cm/ 5.0 in
Pages: 6
Pieces: 32
Level: Easy
Designer: Brandon
Photo: Skeleman
NOTES: Regice is the easiest of the Regis but the difficulty of it goes up more than most models with a lineless version. This is because unlike a lot of models it has to be scored and folded or it will not look right. But with a lineless version is becomes hard to know where the score and fold is supposed to be in some places.


Download: A4 / Letter

REGISTEEL


379 / REGISTEEL - Pokémon Papercraft
Name: Registeel
Type: Steel
Species: Iron Pokémon
Height: 1.9 m (6′03″)
Weight: 205.0 kg (451.9 lbs.)
Interesting Facts: The top-half of Registeel's body is spherical and gray with a black stripe running down where its "face" is. Registeel's face consists of seven dots in a hexagon formation. Registeel has black arms with three fingers each. Registeel has cylindrical legs. While Registeel has been classified as a Steel-type Pokémon, its body is actually made of a material that is actually harder than any known metal on this planet. Registeel's body has also shown some flexibility as well.

THE PAPER MODEL
Height: 19.0 cm/ 7.5 in
Width: 17.5 cm/ 6.9 in
Depth: 24.4 cm/ 9.6 in
Pages: 7
Pieces: 77
Level: Medium
Designer: Brandon
Photo: Skeleman
NOTES: Not hard but more difficult than it may look because so much of it is rounded. Also be careful when attaching the arms, fingers, and legs so that their placement in accurate.


Download: A4 / Letter

REGIGIGAS

486 / REGIGIGAS - Pokémon Papercraft
Name:
Regigigas
Type: Normal
Species: Colossal Pokémon
Height: 3.7 m (12′02″)
Weight: 420.0 kg (925.9 lbs.)
Interesting Facts: Regigigas shares several traits with the Regis. For instance, it has seven dot-like "eyes" arranged in a specific pattern. It has six spots that are apart from its eyes, which seem to be gemstones. These gemstones seem to represent the Regis with the red gems representing Regirock, the blue gems representing Regice and the silver gems representing Registeel. It has a golem-like shape and long arms with short legs. Its body is covered in black stripes, and it has moss growing in its back and feet, which may indicate it has been asleep for a long time.

THE PAPER MODEL
Height: 15.0 cm/5.9 in
Width: 24.0 cm/ 9.4 in
Depth: 12.8 cm/5.0 in
No. of Pages: 8
No. of Pieces: 72
Level: Hard
Designer: PMF
Photo: PMF
NOTES: Read the instructions on the template and use the "Edge ID" pdf to help you.

Download: A4 / Letter

Eiffel Tower (Night), France


PatternA4(10Pages)(Night Model) Assembly InstructionsA4(4Pages)
Download Download
(2,349KB) (329KB)
PatternLTR(10Pages)(Night Model) Assembly InstructionsLTR(4Pages)
Download Download
(2,350KB) (328KB)

Contents information

Artist name

  • PAOPAO.Inc
< Set the printer >
Recommended paper type
  • Matte Photo Paper
Print Quality
  • High
Orientation
  • Landscape
Page Layout
  • Same magnification
Page Scaling
  • None

Recognized around the world as a symbol of Paris, the Eiffel Tower was built for the Paris World Exposition, held in 1889 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the French Revolution. Named after its designer, Gustave Eiffel, plans for this 320-meter tower and its steel structure and unconventional design encountered initial resistance from devotees of Paris's historic streetscape. Today, it is a designated World Heritage Site and one of the top sightseeing destinations in Paris.

Tentang Hidup

http://img75.imageshack.us/img75/6605/die_punk1.jpg

Apalah artinya hidup jika tujuan akhir kita mati juga, mau mati cepat atau lambat, mau mati saat mudah atau saat tua. Tidak ada bedanya! Karena kita sendiri tidak bisa memutuskan kapan kita dapat mengakhiri hidup, kecuali ente bunuh diri. Tapi itu adalah tindakan pecundang walau itu dilakukan oleh seorang yang dikatakan samurai.

Tentang hidup ini akan selalu mengalami rintangan, selalu mengalami kesulitan. Mengapa itu semua terjadi, karena diantara kesusahan itulah kita dapat mendapatkan kebahagiaan, yang biasanya kita lakukan dengan tersenyum dan tertawa. Maksudnya? Anda tidak mungkin merasakan buah itu manis jika belum merasakan asam bukan?

Dalam hidup ini bukanlah tentang mengapa kita melakukan ini, tetapi lebih seperti apa tujuan kita melakukan ini. Anda bisa menjadi orang yang selalu mempertanyakan keadaan hidup anda yang katanya serba susah. Atau anda bisa menjadi sedikit dari sebagian orang sukses di dunia ini, yang selalu mengatakan apa tujuan kita selanjutnya.

Percayalah! kebahagian anda akan tercapai bukan saat anda berdiri di tujuan itu malahan saat anda berusaha mencapai tujuan itu. Sebuah proses lebih menggambarkan arti dari sebuah tujuan daripada tujuan itu sendiri. Hidup ini akan selalu penuh dengan tujuan apa yang akan dituju, sampai ajal menjelang, sampai dunia ini berada pada titik dimana kita tidak diperbolehkan lagi untuk tinggal.

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_gViNpP8mJwM/TO6cQGb0yhI/AAAAAAAAB2A/zKZQd4B1y-4/s1600/12065582132010821609raemi_Die_.svg.hi.png
Hidup akan selalu penuh cahaya jika anda berjalan di bawah sinar matahari, Hidup juga akan selalu penuh dengan kegelapan jika berjalan pada malam hari. Maksudnya jika anda hidup dengan hati optimis dan selalu mengatakan “Saya bisa melakukannya”, maka anda akan hidup pada jalan yang terang akan kesuksesan, lain halnya jika anda berjalan di malam hari.. anda yang selalu mengatakan PESIMIS, maka anda hanya sedang menggali kegagalan, tapi percayalah bahkan pada malah hari masih ada setitik cahaya dari bintang yang dapat menuntun anda ke jalan yang lebih terang.

Akhir kata, hidup ini hanyalah proses, karena kita tidak ditakdirkan untuk hidup dalam tujuan, kita ditakdirkan hidup untuk berjalan dan menggapai tujuan. Apa tujuan anda sebenarnya? Apa yang ingin anda rasakan dalam hidup dan apakah yang benar-benar anda inginkan setelah mencapai semua hal ini.

Yang pasti bersyukurlah tentang arti hidup ini….

(blogbintang.com)

Sabtu, 18 Juni 2011

I Love You Just The Way You Are

Menyatukan dua orang dengan latar belakang yang berbeda, bahkan sangat berbeda, bukanlah hal yang mudah. Budaya, pola asuh, pendidikan, dan lingkungan keluarga serta pergaulan sangat mempengaruhi perilaku seseorang dan kecocokannya dengan orang lain.

Terkadang yang kita anggap cocok saat ini, belum tentu cocok nanti. Seiring dengan perjalanan waktu, kita tidak hanya melihat persamaan, namun juga melihat perbedaan. Kemudian sampai di mana kita mampu mengelola perbedaan tersebut menjadi sesuatu yang indah, di mana yang satu dapat melengkapi yang lain? Bila kedua belah pihak tidak dapat menerima perbedaan yang ada, atau malah hanya berdiam diri dan menyimpan dalam hati tanpa membicarakannya, akan muncul masalah dalam hubungan tanpa mereka sendiri.

Seringkali orang mencari pasangan berdasarkan penampilan fisik atau materi semata. Padahal standar fisik (cantik, langsing, ganteng, kekar) atau materi bersifat subjektif. Memang kadang hal tersebut dapat membuat kita bahagia namun di mana esensi cinta?

Robert Sternberg, seorang psikolog mengemukakan konsepsi mengenai cinta. Ia mengilustrasikan cinta dalam bentuk segitiga.

Cinta yang penuh atau lengkap adalah cinta yang disebut consummate love, yakni kombinasi dari adanya keintiman (intimacy), hasrat (passion), dan komitmen (commitment) . Cinta tanpa komitmen tidak menunjukkan adanya kesetiaan dan saling mengasihi yang mendalam.

Cinta tersebut hanya karena nafsu, membara namun pada akhirnya berpaling ketika ada objek cinta yang lain. Komitmen menandakan adanya penerimaan antara yang satu dengan yang lain dan menjadikan cinta sebagai sesuatu yang suci di antara mereka.

Di lain pihak, cinta tanpa hasrat merupakan cinta yang hampa. Komitmen saja, misalnya karena terpaksa menikah karena pilihan orang tua atau karena berhutang budi tanpa memiliki hasrat, menyebabkan ikatan karena keharusan, bukan karena kerelaan. Baik, bila pada akhirnya cinta dapat tercipta. Bila tidak, hubungan terasa hampa.

Cinta yang timbul karena komitmen dan hasrat semata, tanpa mau mengenal pasangan lebih dalam dan berusaha memahami serta membangun keintiman yang lebih dalam adalah cinta yang kekanak-kanakan. Seperti cinta monyet. Esensi cinta juga sulit ditemukan dalam cinta semacam ini. Masalah dapat timbul dan cinta dapat hilang begitu saja.

Bila kita mampu membangun komitmen, mengenal pasangan kita lebih jauh, memahami dirinya sebagai pribadi yang unik dan kita cintai, memiliki hasrat untuk bersamanya, maka kita akan mendapatkan cinta seutuhnya. Tidak mudah memang. Namun, belajar untuk menerima, saling membangun satu sama lain, dan menyadari bahwa cinta saya adalah pada pribadi ini dengan segala sesuatu yang ada di dalamnya adalah cinta yang sebenarnya.

Pada dasarnya, mewujudkan hal tersebut tidak semudah ketika saya menuliskannya. Seperti telah diungkapkan di atas, menyatukan segala perbedaan bukan hal yang mudah. Berusaha untuk menerima dengan lapang dada, tidaklah mudah. Tetapi pasangan seperti apakah yang kita cari? Sampai kapan kita akan menemukan pasangan yang sempurna? Jawabannya tidak akan pernah ada kecuali kita sendiri yang menciptakan kesempurnaan itu.

“Cinta yang timbul dari hati, dari kejujuran dan ketulusan, love actually alias I love you just the way you are”

Hal tersebut pada akhirnya akan membantu kedua belah pihak menyelesaikan masalah yang ada. Toh kita tidak akan tetap muda dan terus mencari dan mencari. Suatu hari kita akan merasakan kerinduan untuk berbagi dengan orang yang penting dalam hidup kita, ingin menggenapkan tugas perkembangan kita yaitu membangun keluarga.

Pada saatnya nanti, pernikahan bukanlah permainan, bukan hanya sekadar pesta, namun merupakan janji suci dua insan. Apakah akan berakhir dengan kesedihan karena sikap egois dan seenaknya sendiri atau berakhir bahagia hingga akhir waktu kita sendiri yang dapat menentukan.

Senin, 13 Juni 2011

7 Cara Bunuh Diri Paling Populer

Negara dengan tingkat bunuh diri paling tinggi adalah Jepang. Cara bunuh diri khas Jepang adalah Harakiri yang juga cara yang paling populer. Tulisan ini hanya sekedar informasi saja bukan sebagai pilihan untuk anda bunuh diri. Pokoknya, jangan sampai melakukan hal seperti ini. Di bawah ini adalah beberapa cara bunuh diri yang paling populer di dunia.

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_DFjIkoLEX-M/TFRt5eBSMdI/AAAAAAAABMU/lVs-e3ysh3s/s320/minum_racun.jpg

1. Bunuh diri dengan minum racun serangga
Bunuh diri dengan cara meminum racun adalah cara yang paling banyak digunakan oleh pelaku bunuh diri. Banyak orang mengakhiri hidupnya dengan tragis seperti ini setelah mereka sudah tidak tahan untuk menjalani hidupnya di dunia. Orang yang meminum racun serangga, akan mengalami kejang-kejang dan mengeluarkan busa di mulutnya sebelum mereka mati.


http://www.rimanews.com/sites/default/files/imagecache/250x175/gantung-diri-juga.jpg

2. Lompat dari ketinggian
Cara inilah yang paling banyak kita jumpai di seluruh dunia. Melompat dari ketinggian adalah cara yang paling populer di Jepang. Biasanya, mereka memilih gedung yang tinggi untuk menjalankan aksi bunuh dirinya. Banyak faktor mengapa orang melakukan bunuh diri, bisa saja karena patah hati, stress untuk menghadapi kebutuhan ekonomi, atau terlilit hutang juga bisa saja mungkin terjadi.


3. Gantung diri
Hingga saat ini, cara menggantung diri masih sering dilakukan. Pelaku bunuh diri mengaitkan sebuah tali, bisa di pohon ataupu rumahnya.


http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-Ol7xBxCnr4A/TVceD6ZbNqI/AAAAAAAAAFk/6k1O_FjrjEk/s320/20081022114930.jpg

4. Memotong nadi dengan silet
Cara ini paling banyak dilakukan biasanya setelah mereka sakit hati atau diputuskan oleh pasangannya. Mereka memotong nadi di tangan. Pelaku bunuh diri akan mengalami pendarahan hebat sebelum bunuh diri dan akhirnya pelaku bunuh diri akan mati karena lemas darahnya terkuras habis.

http://mediapalu.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/Tembak-kepala..jpg

5. Bunuh diri ala koboy
Cara ini sudah jarang ditemui, bisa jadi ini adalah cara klasik yang digunakan zaman dulu kala. Pelaku bunuh diri menembakkan kepalanya sendiri dengan pistol.

http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-5nTFhFo8BHU/TV9YsQMM-pI/AAAAAAAAAI8/CHL71c43NX0/s1600/Kebakaran.jpg

6. Bakar diri bersama-sama keluarga tercinta
Cara ini masih banyak dilakukan dan kita temui di negara-negara kita. Namun, kebanyakannya cara ini bukan untuk bunuh diri melainkan untuk membunuh orang.

http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_NOuivbMciGM/THAeJC6YzZI/AAAAAAAAA0k/grlm0-ri-J4/s1600/bunuh+diri+ditabrak+kereta+api.jpg

7. Tidur diatas rel kereta api
Metode bunuh diri seperti ini sudah jarang kita temui. Pelaku bunuh diri menabrakkan diri pada kereta yang sedang melaju kencang. Orang yang mengakhiri hidupnya dengan cara ini, akan sungguh tragis dan seringkali jasadnya hancur.