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Minggu, 10 Oktober 2010

Biologi: GENETIKA

Genetics-The branch of biology that deals with heredity, the variation of inherited characteristics among similar or related organisms.
True-breeding-term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identicle to themselves if allowed to self pollinate.

Hybrid- the offspring of two humans or animals or plants of different breeds
Gene- A hereditary unit that occupies a specific location on a chromosome, determines a particular characteristic in an organism by directing the formation of a specific protein, and is capable of replicating itself at each cell division.
Allele- any of several forms of a gene, usually arising through mutation, that are responsible for hereditary variation. Segregation-the separation of allelic genes into different gametes during meiosis.
Gamete- a mature sexual reproductive cell, as a sperm or egg, that unites with another cell to form a new organism.
Probability- The likelihood of getting certain genes
Punnett Square- type of grid used to show the gametes of each parent and their possible offspring
Homozygous-Having the same alleles at a one or more gene loci on homologous chromosome segments.Heterozygous- having dissimilar pairs of genes for any hereditary characteristic Phenotype- the appearance of an organism resulting from the interaction of the genotype and the environment
Genotype- genetic makeup of an organism
Homologous- term used to refer to an organism that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex partnerDiploid- term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomesHaploid- pertaining to a single set of chromosomesMeiosis- part of the process of gamete formation, consisting of chromosome conjugation and two cell divisions, in the course of which the diploid chromosome number becomes reduced to the haploid

http://youtube.com/watch?v=D1_-mQS_FZ0

Tetrad- a group of four chromatids formed by synapsis at the beginning of meiosis

Crossing-Over- The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that occurs during meiosis and contributes to genetic variabilityGene Map- an arrangement of genes on a chromosome